Bulk Liquid Electrochemistry

Generation V: Introducing the world's first bulk liquid-electrochemistry TEM holder

Technical Specs

1490 series
Total Electrodes 6
True Reference Electrode Yes-  drift rate less than 0.1 mV/min
True Counter Electrode Yes
Counter Electrode  Material User’s choice of material
Electrolytes Aqueous, Wide range of organics*
Spacer range 100nm to 2 um*
Heating Capability Yes
EELS/ EDS Compatible Yes
TEM Compatibility TFS/FEI, JEOL, Hitachi

* Contact us for Custom Configurations


Featured Research

Replicating bulk electrochemistry experiments in-situ in the TEM

Hummingbird Scientific’s newest Generation V Bulk in-situ liquid-electrochemistry holder allows researchers for the first time to fully replicate bulk-level electrochemical details inside the transmission electron microscope. A newly developed hardware system allows quantitative measurements of electrochemical processes with details showing the complete cycle of the bulk.

As  an illustration, a cyclic voltammetry (CV) study of a model compound CuSO4  solution showing plating and stripping of copper from the active electrode has been presented here. The copper plating and stripping occurs at the  working electrode, replicating actual bulk behavior.

The new Hummingbird Scientific’s liquid-cell hardware and cells allows, for the first time, for replication of bulk-level data in TEM.

Video  Right: In-situ liquid cell TEM copper plating and stripping from CuSO4  solution. Inset shows corresponding CV curve representing the video.

HBS internal data obtained in collaboration with Rui Filipe Serra Maia and Eric Stach at the University of Pennsylvania.

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Video Spotlight

Electrochemical deposition of a conducting polymer on a gold electrode

Video on the left shows the methodological and controlled deposition of polyaniline – a conducting polymer – from solution into a gold electrode. The deposition starts at the interface between the working electrode and electrolyte solution. The electrode surface is heavily modified as the polymer deposits. This observation helps understanding the rate determining processes of nucleation and growth, which has an important application in corrosion protection of materials.

Hummingbird Scientific internal data.

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Customization & Service

Selected Publications

Beatriz Ávila-Bolívar, Mauricio Lopez Luna, Fengli Yang, Aram Yoon, Vicente Montiel, José Solla-Gullón, See Wee Chee, and Beatriz Roldan Cuenya. “Revealing the Intrinsic Re-structuring of Bi2O3 Nanoparticles into Bi Nanosheets during Electrochemical CO2 Reduction.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2024) Abstract
Saltanat Toleukhanova, Tzu-Hsien Shen, Chen Chang, Swathilakshmi Swathilakshmi, Tecla Bottinelli Montandon, and Vasiliki Tileli. “Graphene Electrode for Studying CO2 Electroreduction Nanocatalysts under Realistic Conditions in Microcells.” Adv. Mater. (2024) Abstract
Ji Hoon Choi, Hak Hyeon Lee, Sungho Jeon, Swagotom Sarker, Dong Su Kim, Eric A. Stach, and Hyung Koun Cho. “Photo-illuminated redox processed Rh2P nanoparticles on photocathodes for stable hydrogen production in acidic environments.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2024) Abstract
Tzu-Hsien Shen, Robin Girod, and Vasiliki Tileli. “Insights into Electrocatalyst Transformations Studied in Real Time with Electrochemical Liquid-Phase Transmission Electron Microscopy.” Acc. Chem. Res. (2023) Abstract
Fengli Yang, Mauricio Lopez Luna, Felix T. Haase, Daniel Escalera-Lόpez, Aram Yoon, Martina Rüscher, Clara Rettenmaier, Hyo Sang Jeon, Eduardo Ortega, Janis Timoshenko, Arno Bergmann, See Wee Chee, and Beatriz Roldan Cuenya. “Spatially and Chemically Resolved Visualization of Fe Incorporation into NiO Octahedra during the Oxygen Evolution Reaction.” J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2023) Abstract
Bonho Koo, Jinkyu Chung, Juwon Kim, Dimitrios Fraggedakis, Sungjae Seo, Chihyun Nam, Danwon Lee, Jeongwoo Han, Sugeun Jo, Hongbo Zhao, Neel Nadkarni, Jian Wang, Namdong Kim, Markus Weigand, Martin Z. Bazant, and Jongwoo Lim. “Dynamic surface phases controlling asymmetry of high-rate lithiation and delithiation in phase-separating electrodes.” Energy & Environmental Science (2023) Abstract
Hongbo Zhao, Haitao Dean Deng, Alexander E. Cohen, Jongwoo Lim, Yiyang Li, Dimitrios Fraggedakis, Benben Jiang, Brian D. Storey, William C. Chueh, Richard D. Braatz, and Martin Z. Bazant. “Learning heterogeneous reaction kinetics from X-ray videos pixel by pixel.” Nature (2023) Abstract
Fengli Yang, Mauricio Lopez Luna, Felix T Haase, Daniel Escalera-Lόpez, Aram Yoon, Ali Kosari, Mauro Porcu, Arno Bergmann, Beatriz Roldan Cuenya, and See Wee Chee. “Tracking the Incorporation of Fe into NiO Electrocatalysts during Reaction with Liquid Phase Electron Microscopy and Time-Resolved Elemental Mapping.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2023) Abstract
Tzu-Hsien Shen, Robin Girod, Jan Vavra, and Vasiliki Tileli. “Considerations of Liquid-Phase Transmission Electron Microscopy Applied to Heterogeneous Electrocatalysis.” J. Electrochem. Soc. (2023) Abstract
A.C. Meng, R. Serra-Maia, K.-B. Low, H. Lang, and E.A. Stach. “Liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy characterization of combined chemical and electrochemical reduction of palladium.” Materials Today Nano (2023) Abstract
Steven C. Hayden, Claire Chisholm, Shannon L. Eichmann, Rachael Grudt, Gerald S. Frankel, Brian Hanna, Tatiana Headrick, and Katherine L. Jungjohann. “Genesis of Nanogalvanic Corrosion Revealed in Pearlitic Steel.” Nano Letters (2022) Abstract
Aram Yoon, Jeffrey Poon, Philipp Grosse, See Wee Chee, and Beatriz Roldan Cuenya. “Iodide-mediated Cu catalyst restructuring during CO2 electroreduction.” J. Mater. Chem. A (2022) Abstract
Shu Fen Tan, Kate Reidy, Julian Klein, Ainsley Pinkowitz, Baoming Wang, and Frances M. Ross. “Real-time imaging of nanoscale electrochemical Ni etching under thermal conditions.” Chemical Science (2021) Abstract
Rui Serra-Maia, Pawan Kumar, Andrew C. Meng, Alexandre C. Foucher, Yijin Kang, Khim Karki, Deep Jariwala, and Eric A. Stach. “Nanoscale Chemical and Structural Analysis during In Situ Scanning/Transmission Electron Microscopy in Liquids.” ACS Nano (2021) Abstract
Shu Fen Tan, Kate Reidy, Serin Lee, Julian Klein, Nicholas M. Schneider, Hae Yeon Lee, and Frances M. Ross. “Multilayer Graphene—A Promising Electrode Material in Liquid Cell Electrochemistry.” Adv. Funct. Mater. (2021) Abstract
Morgan Binggeli, Tzu-Hsien Shen, and Vasiliki Tileli. “Simulating Current Distribution of Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Microcells Using Finite Element Method.” J. Electrochem. Soc. (2021) Abstract
Wenhui Wang, See Wee Chee, Hongwei Yan, Ivan Erofeev, and Utkur Mirsaidov. “Growth Dynamics of Vertical and Lateral Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets during Electrodeposition.” Nano Lett. (2021) Abstract
Tzu-Hsien Shen, Liam Spillane, Jiayu Peng, Yang Shao-Horn, and Vasiliki Tileli. “Switchable wetting of oxygen-evolving oxide catalysts,” Nature Catalysis (2021) Abstract
See Wee Chee, Thomas Lunkenbein, Robert Schlög, and Beatriz Roldan Cuenya. “In situ and operando electron microscopy in heterogeneous catalysis – Insights into multi-scale chemical dynamics.” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (2021) Abstract
J. Tyler Mefford, Andrew R. Akbashev, Minkyung Kang, Cameron L. Bentley, William E. Gent, Haitao D. Deng, Daan Hein Alsem, Young-Sang Yu, Norman J. Salmon, David A. Shapiro, Patrick R. Unwin, and William C. Chueh. “Correlative operando microscopy of oxygen evolution electrocatalysts.” Nature (2021) Abstract
Philipp Grosse, Aram Yoon, Clara Rettenmaier, Antonia Herzog, See Wee Chee, and Beatriz Roldan Cuenya. “Dynamic transformation of cubic copper catalysts during CO2 electroreduction and its impact on catalytic selectivity.” Nat. Commun. (2021) Abstract
Aram Yoon, Antonia Herzog, Philipp Grosse, Daan Hein Alsem, See Wee Chee, and Beatriz Roldán Cuenya. “Dynamic Imaging of Nanostructures in an Electrolyte with a Scanning Electron Microscope.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2021) Abstract
David A. Shapiro, Sergey Babin, Richard S. Celestre, Weilun Chao, Raymond P. Conley, Peter Denes, Bjoern Enders, Pablo Enfedaque, Susan James, John M. Joseph, Harinarayan Krishnan, Stefano Marchesini, Krishna Muriki, Kasra Nowrouzi, Sharon R. Oh, Howard Padmore, Tony Warwick, Lee Yang, Valeriy V. Yashchuk, Young-Sang Yu, and Jiangtao Zhao. “An ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray microscope for quantitative analysis of chemically heterogeneous nanomaterials.” Science Advances (2020) Abstract
Khim Karki, Pawan Kumar, Antoine Verret, Noah Glachman, Daan Hein Alsem, Deep Jariwala, Norman Salmon, and Eric Stach. “In situ/operando Study of Photoelectrochemistry Using Optical Liquid Cell Microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2020) Abstract
Yifan Li, Dohyung Kim, Sheena Louisia, Chenlu Xie, Qiao Kong, Sunmoon Yu, Tom Lin, Shaul Aloni, Sirine C. Fakra, and Peidong Yang. “Electrochemically scrambled nanocrystals are catalytically active for CO2-to-multicarbons.” PNAS (2020) Abstract
Tzu-Hsien Shen, Liam Spillane, Jan Vavra, Thi Ha My Pham, Jiayu Peng, Yang Shao-Horn, and Vasiliki Tileli. “Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3−δ Aided by Intrinsic Co/Fe Spinel-Like Surface.” J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2020) Abstract
Saran Pidaparthy, Chang Liu, Ryan Stephens, Qian Chen, and Jian-Min Zuo. “Understanding Li-O2 Battery Cathode Product Formation via Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2020) Abstract
Jing Hou, Anna Freiberg, Tzu-Hsien Shen, Robin Girod, Julien Gonthier, Sung-Jin Kim, Filippo Maglia, Hubert A Gasteiger, and Vasiliki Tileli. “Charge/discharge cycling of Li1+x(Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2)1−xO2 primary particles performed in a liquid microcell for transmission electron microscopy studies.” J. Phys. Energy (2020) Abstract
Philipp Grosse, Aram Yoon, Clara Rettenmaier, See Wee Chee, and Beatriz Roldan Cuenya. “Growth Dynamics and Processes Governing the Stability of Electrodeposited Size-controlled Cubic Cu Catalysts.” J. Phys. Chem. C (2020) Abstract
Khim Karki, Rui Serra-Maia, Eric Stach, Daan Hein Alsem, and Norman Salmon. “Realistic Bulk Electrochemistry in Liquid Cell Microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2020) Abstract
See Wee Chee, Aram Yoon, Rosa Aran-Ais, Ruben Rizo, Philipp Grosse, and Beatriz Roldan Cuenya. “Investigating the Behavior of Cu-based Catalysts During Electrochemical CO2 Reduction with Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2020) Abstract
Jing Hou, Robin Girod, Nikolaos Nianias, Tzu-Hsien Shen, Jialiang Fan, and Vasiliki Tileli. “Lithium-Gold Reference Electrode for Potential Stability During In Situ Electron Microscopy Studies of Lithium-Ion Batteries.” J. Electrochem. Soc. (2020) Abstract
Chen Hou, Jiuhui Han, Pan Liu, Chuchu Yang, Gang Huang, Takeshi Fujita, Akihiko Hirata, and Mingwei Chen. “Operando Observations of SEI Film Evolution by Mass-Sensitive Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.” Adv. Energy Mater. (2019) Abstract
Noah Glachman, Noah Geller, Alexander Shea, V Antoine Verret, Khim Karki, Julio Rodriquez-Manzo, Norman J Salmon, Daan Hein Alsem, Deep Jariwala, and Eric Stach. “Development of a Method to Characterize Active Sites in Photocatalysis using operando Transmission Electron Microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2019) Abstract
Robin Girod, Nikolaos Nianias, and Vasiliki Tileli. “Electrochemical Behavior of Carbon Electrodes for In Situ Redox Studies in a Transmission Electron Microscope.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2019) Abstract
Nikhilendra Singh, Timothy S. Arthur, Oscar Tutusaus, Jing Li, Kim Kisslinger, Huolin L. Xin, Eric A. Stach, Xudong Fan, and Rana Mohtadi. “Achieving High Cycling Rates via In-situ Generation of Active Nanocomposite Metal Anodes.” ACS Applied Energy Materials (2018) Abstract
Khim Karki, Tyler Mefford, Daan Hein Alsem, Norman Salmon, and William C. Chueh. “Replicating Bulk Electrochemistry in Liquid Cell Microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2018) Abstract
Khim Karki, Daan Hein Alsem, and Norman Salmon. “Practical Electroanalytical Measurements in Liquid Cell TEM.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2018) Abstract
Jeung Hun Park, Tommy Watanabe, Ainsley Pinkowitz, David J. Duquette, Robert Hull, Daniel A. Steingart, and Frances M. Ross. “In situ EC-TEM Studies of Metal Thin Film Corrosion in Liquid Solutions at Elevated Temperatures.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2018) Abstract
Feng Yan, Lili Liu, Tiffany R. Walsh, Yu Gong, Patrick Z. El-Khoury, Yanyan Zhang, Zihua Zhu, James J. De Yoreo, Mark H. Engelhard, Xin Zhang, and Chun-Long Chen. “Controlled synthesis of highly-branched plasmonic gold nanoparticles through peptoid engineering.” Nat. Commun. (2018) Abstract
Claudia Stauch, Christopher Hobbs, Aleksey Shmeliov, Valeria Nicolosi, Thomas Ballweg, Robert Luxenhofer, and Karl Mandel. “Colloidal Core–Satellite Supraparticles via Preprogramed Burst of Nanostructured Micro‐Raspberry Particles.” Particle & Particle Systems Characterization (2018) Abstract
Chen Houa, Jiuhui Hanb, Pan Liua, Chuchu Yangb, Gang Huangb, Takeshi Fujitab, Akihiko Hiratab, and Mingwei Chen. “Operando observations of RuO2 catalyzed Li2O2 formation and decomposition in a Li-O2 micro-battery.” Nano Energy (2018) Abstract
Pan Liu, Jiuhui Han, Xianwei Guo, Yoshikazu Ito, Chuchu Yang, Shoucong Ning, Takeshi Fujita, Akihiko Hirata, and Mingwei Chen. “Operando characterization of cathodic reactions in a liquid-state lithium-oxygen micro-battery by scanning transmission electron microscopy.” Scientific Reports (2018) Abstract
Jeung Hun Park, Nicholas M. Schneider, Daniel A. Steingart, Hariklia Deligianni, Suneel Kodambaka, and Frances M. Ross. “Control of Growth Front Evolution by Bi Additives during ZnAu Electrodeposition.” Nano Letters (2018) Abstract
Trevor H. Moser, Hardeep Mehta, Chiwoo Park, Ryan T. Kelly, Tolou Shokuhfar, and James E. Evans. “The role of electron irradiation history in liquid cell transmission electron microscopy,” Science Advances (2018) Abstract
Lili Liu, Shuai zhang, Mark E. Bowden, Jharna Chaudhuri, and James J. De Yoreo. “In-situ TEM and AFM investigation of morphological controls during the growth of single crystal BaWO4.” Crystal Growth & Design (2017) Abstract
Edward R. White, Jared J. Lodico, and B. C. Regan. “Intercalation events visualized in single microcrystals of graphite.” Nat. Commun. (2017) Abstract
Julio A. Rodriguez Manzo, Norman J. Salmon, and Daan Hein Alsem. “In Situ TEM Observation of Water Splitting.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2017) Abstract
YuBo Wang, Shuai Wang, and Xing Lu. “In Situ Observation of the Growth of ZnO Nanostructures Using Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2017) Abstract
See Wee Chee, Shu Fen Tan, Zhaslan Baraissov, Michel Bosman, and Utkur Mirsaidov. “Direct observation of the nanoscale Kirkendall effect during galvanic replacement reactions.” Nat. Commun. (2017) Abstract
Chuchu Yang, Jiuhui Han, Pan Liu, Chen Hou, Gang Huang, Takeshi Fujita, Akihiko Hirata, and Mingwei Chen. “Direct Observations of the Formation and Redox-Mediator-Assisted Decomposition of Li2O2 in a Liquid-Cell Li–O2 Microbattery by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Advanced Materials (2017) Abstract
Jongwoo Lim, Yiyang Li, Daan Hein Alsem, Hongyun So, Sang Chul Lee, Peng Bai, Daniel A. Cogswell, Xuxhao Liu, Norman Jin, Young-sang Yu, Norman J. Salom, David A. Shapiro, Martin Z. Bazant, Tolek Tyliszczak, and William C. Chueh. “Origin and hysteresis of lithium compositional spatiodynamics within battery primary particles,” Science (2017) Abstract
Jongwoo Lim, Yiyang Li, Daan Hein Alsem, Hongyun So, Sang Chul Lee, Peng Bai, Daniel A. Cogswell, Xuzhao Liu, Norman Jin, Young-sang Yu, Norman J. Salmon, David Shapiro, Martin Z. Bazant, Tolek Tyliszczak, and William Chueh. “Using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy to Reveal the Origin of Lithium Compositional Spatiodynamics in Battery Materials.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2017) Abstract
Eli Fahrenkrug, Daan Hein Alsem, Norman Salmon, and Stephen Maldonado. “Electrochemical Measurements in In Situ TEM Experiments,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2017) Abstract
Eli Fahrenkrug, Daan Hein Alsem, Norman Salmon, and Stephen Maldonado. “Electrochemical Measurements during In Situ Liquid-Electrochemical TEM Experiments.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2017) Abstract
Timothy S. Arthur, Per-Anders Glans, Nikhilendra Singh, Oscar Tutusaus, Kaiqi Nie, Yi-Sheng Liu, Fuminori Mizuno, Jinghua Guo, Daan Hein Alsem, Norman J. Salmon, and Rana Mohtadi. “Interfacial insight from operando sXAS/TEM for magnesium metal deposition with borohydride electrolytes.” Chemistry of Materials (2017) Abstract
Jeung Hun Park, Daniel A. Steingart, Suneel Kodambaka, and Frances M. Ross. “Electrochemical electron beam lithography: Write, read, and erase metallic nanocrystals on demand,” Science Advances (2017) Abstract
Jianbo Wu, Wenpei Gao, Hong Yang, and Jian-Min Zuo. “Dissolution Kinetics of Oxidative Etching of Cubic and Icosahedral Platinum Nanoparticles Revealed by in Situ Liquid Transmission Electron Microscopy,” ACS Nano (2017) Abstract
Omid Sadeghi, Clément Falaise, Pedro I. Molina, Ryan Hufschmid, Charles F. Campana, Bruce C. Noll, Nigel D. Browning, and May Nyman. “Chemical Stabilization and Electrochemical Destabilization of the Iron Keggin Ion in Water,” Inorganic Chemistry (2016) Abstract
Ainsley Pinkowitz, See Wee Chee, Brent J. Engler, David J. Duquette, and Robert Hull. “An In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Localized Corrosion on Aluminum.” MRS Adv. (2016) Abstract
Colm O’Regan, Xi Zhu, Jun Zhong, Utkarsh Anand, Jingyu Lu, Haibin Su, and Utkur Mirsaidov. “CTAB-Influenced Electrochemical Dissolution of Silver Dendrites.” Langmuir (2016) Abstract
R. R. Unocic, L. Baggetto, G. M. Veith, J. A. Aguiar, K. A. Unocic, R. L. Sacci, N. J. Dudneyb, and K. L. Morea. “Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy.” Chem. Commun. (2015) Abstract
R.R. Unocic. “In-situ Liquid S/TEM: Practical Aspects, Challenges, and Opportunities.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2015) Abstract
W. Zhang, D.H. Alsem, F. Wang, and N. Salmon. “In-Situ Liquid Cell TEM Studies of Electrochemical Reaction in Lithium-Ion Batteries.” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015) Abstract
J.P. Patterson, P. Abellan, M.S. Denny, C. Park, N.D. Browning, S.M. Cohen, J.E. Evans, and N.C. Gianneschi. “Observing the Self-assembly of Metal-Organic Frameworks by In-Situ Liquid Cell TEM.” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015) Abstract
J.-M. Zuo, A. Yoon, W. Gao, J. Wu, and H. Park. “Materials processes observed using dynamical environmental TEM at University of Illinois.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2015) Abstract
T.J. Woehal, S. Kashyap, E. Firlar, T. Perez-Gonzalez, D. Faivre, D. Trubitsyn, D. Bazylinski, and T. Prozorov. “Correlative Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Liquid: Toward In-Vivo Imaging.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2015) Abstract
Feng Wang, Wei Zhang, Peng Gao, and Khim Karki. “Tracking Ionic Transport and Electrochemical Dynamics in Battery Electrodes Using in situ TEM-EELS.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2015) Abstract
Jeung Hun Park, See Wee Chee, Suneel Kodambaka, and Frances M. Ross. “In Situ LC-TEM Studies of Corrosion of Metal Thin Films in Aqueous Solutions.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2015) Abstract
T.J. Woehl, and T. Prozorov. “Visualization of gold nanoparticle self-assembly kinetics.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2015) Abstract
See Wee Chee, Jeung-Hun Park, Ainsley Pinkowitz, Brent Engler, Frances M. Ross, David Duquette, and Robert Hull. “Liquid Cell TEM of Al Thin Film Corrosion under Potentiostatic Polarization.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2015) Abstract
N. Bhattarai, and T. Prozorov. “In-situ STEM Investigation of Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanocube.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2015) Abstract
S.W. Chee, D. Loh, U Mirsaidov, and P. Matsudaira. “Probing Nanoparticle Dynamics in 200nm Thick Liquid Layers at Millisecond Time Resolution.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2015) Abstract
C. Wang. “In situ transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy studies of rechargeable batteries under dynamic operating conditions: A retrospective and perspective view.” Journal of Materials Research (2015) Abstract
P. J. M. Smeets, K. R. Cho, R. G. E. Kempen, N. A. J. M. Sommerdijk, and J. J. De Yoreo. “Calcium carbonate nucleation driven by ion binding in a biomimetic matrix revealed by in situ electron microscopy.” Nat. Mater. Letters (2015) Abstract
E. Sutter, K. Jungjohann, S. Bliznakov, A. Courty, E. Maisonhaute, S. Tenney, and P. Sutter. “In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of silver–palladium galvanic replacement reactions on silver nanoparticles.” Nat. Commun. (2014) Abstract
M.H. Nielsen, S. Aloni, and J.J. De Yoreo. “In situ TEM imaging of CaCO3 nucleation reveals coexistence of direct and indirect pathways.” Science (2014) Abstract
B. Layla Mehdi, Meng Gu, Lucas R. Parent, Wu Xu, Eduard N. Nasybulin, Xilin Chen, Raymond R. Unocic, Pinghong Xu, David A. Welch, Patricia Abellan, Ji-Guang Zhang, Jun Liu, Chong-Min Wang, Ilke Arslan, James Evans, and Nigel D. Browning. “In-Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy for Battery Research.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2014) Abstract
Nicholas M. Schneider, Jeung Hun Park, Joseph M. Grogan, Suneel Kodambaka, Daniel A. Steingart, Frances M. Ross, and Haim H. Bau. “Visualization of Active and Passive Control of Morphology during Electrodeposition.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2014) Abstract
P. Abellan, B. L. Mehdi, L.R. Parent, M. Gu, C. Park, W. Xu, Y. Zhang, I. Arslan, J.G. Zhang, C.M. Wang, J.E. Evans, and N.D. Browning. “Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-Ion Batteries by in Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy.” Nano Lett. (2014) Abstract
S.W. Chee, D.J. Duquette, F.M. Ross, and R. Hull. “Metastable Structures in Al Thin Films Before the Onset of Corrosion Pitting as Observed using Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.” Micoscopy & Microanalysis (2014) Abstract
R.R. Unocic, X.G. Sun, R.L. Sacci, L.A. Adamczyk, D.H. Alsem, S. Dai, N.J. Dudney, and K.L. More. “Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2014) Abstract
R.L. Sacci, N. Dudney, K. More, L.R. Parent, I. Arslan, N.D. Browning, and R.R. Unocic. “Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by In-Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy.” Chem. Commun. (2014) Abstract
D.A. Fischer, D.H. Alsem, B. Simon, T. Prozorov, and N. Salmon. “Development of an Integrated Platform for Cross-Correlative Imaging of Biological Specimens in Liquid using Light and Electron Microscopies.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2013) Abstract
M. Gu, L.R. Parent, B.L. Mehdi, R.R. Unocic, M.T. McDowell, R.L. Sacci, W. Xu, J.G. Connell, P. Xu, P. Abellan, X. Chen,Y. Zhang, D.E. Perea, J.E. Evans, L.J. Lauhon, J.G. Zhang, J. Liu, N.D. Browning, Y. Cui, I. Arslan, and C.M. Wang. “Demonstration of an Electrochemical Liquid Cell for Operando Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of the Lithiation/Delithiation Behavior of Si Nanowire Battery Anodes.” Nano Lett. (2013) Abstract
S.W. Chee, F.M. Ross, D. Duquette, and R. Hull. “Studies of Corrosion of Al Thin Films using Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.” MRS Proceedings (2013) Abstract
K.L. Jungjohann, S. Bliznakov, P.W. Sutter, E.A. Stach, and E.A. Sutter. “In-Situ Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy of the Solution Growth of Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanostructures.” Nano. Lett. (2013) Abstract
Lucas R. Parent, Volker Presser, Yury Gogotsi, Raymond R. Unocic, Robert L. Sacci, James E. Evans, Nigel D. Browning, Emilie Perre, Bruce Dunn, and Ilke Arslan. “Direct Observation of Pseudocapacitor Electrode Behavior During Electrochemical Biasing using in-situ Liquid Stage Electron Microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2013) Abstract
Robert L. Sacci, Nancy J. Dudney, Karren L. More, and Raymond R. Unocic. “Quantitative In Situ Electrochemical Liquid Cell Characterization of SEI Formation in Lithium Ion Batteries.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2013) Abstract
Y.Z. Liu, X.M. Lin, Y.G. Sun, and T. Rajh. “In-Situ Visualization of Self-Assembly of Charged Gold Nanoparticles.” J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2013) Abstract
E.R. White, S.B. Singer, V. Augustyn, W.A. Hubbard, M. Mecklenburg, B. Dunn, and B.C. Regan. “In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of Lead Dendrites and Lead Ions in Aqueous Solution.” ACS Nano (2012) Abstract
T.J. Woehl, J. E. Evans, I. Arslan, W.D. Ristenpart, and N.D. Browning. “Direct in-situ determination of the mechanisms controlling nanoparticle nucleation and growth.” ACS Nano (2012) Abstract
R.R. Unocic, L. Baggetto, K.A. Unocic, G.M. Veith, N.J. Dudney, and K.L. More. “Coupling EELS/EFTEM Imaging with Environmental Fluid Cell Microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2012) Abstract
E.R. White, M. Mecklenburg, B. Shevitski, S.B. Singer, and B.C. Regan. “Charged nanoparticle dynamics in water induced by scanning transmission electron microscopy.” Langmuir (2012) Abstract
K.L. Jungjohann, J.E. Evans, I. Arslan, and N.D. Browning. “Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy for Aqueous in-Situ Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2011) Abstract
R. R. Unocic, L. A. Adamczyk, N. J. Dudney, D. H. Alsem, N. J. Salmon, and K. L. More. “In-situ TEM Characterization of Electrochemical Processes in Energy Storage Systems.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2011) Abstract
R.R. Unocic, L.A. Adamczyk, N.J. Dudney, D.H. Alsem, N.J. Salmon, and K.L. More. “In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials.” ECS Fall Meeting (2010) Abstract
Raymond R. Unocic, Leslie A. Adamczyk, N. Dudney, Karren L. More, Daan Hein Alsem, and Norman Salmon. “In-Situ TEM Characterization of the SEI in Li-Ion Batteries.” ECS Meet. Abstr. (2010) Abstract


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