Liquid Flow

The World Leader in Environmental TEM

Hummingbird Scientific’s Liquid flow holder allows scientists to image samples in flowing (one or two inlets) or static liquids, up to atomic resolution. It also enables in-situ liquid-electrochemistry and sample heating inside the TEM. This system is a complete, all-in-one liquid environment solution, opening up exciting new avenues for materials characterization.

This ground-breaking product was the winner of the Tibbets Award for Small Business Innovation Research in 2010 and the Federal Lab Consortium Award in 2011.  The Microanalysis Society of America awarded the 2011 Birks Award for the first in-situ liquid TEM electrochemical study performed with the patented Hummingbird Scientific Liquid Flow TEM Holder.

Our award-winning liquid ElectroChemistry holder was the first commercial holder to allow liquid electrochemical experiments inside the TEM.

Now also with custom data/image integration options.


Featured Research

Self-assembly guided by shape and force

Scientists from the National University of Singapore used Hummingbird’s Liquid Cell TEM imaging platform to demonstrate that nanoparticles’ shape influence their self-assembly and growth. These results are published in Advanced Materials. In this study, nanoparticles with different shapes such as rods, bipyramids, spheres, and cubes were capped with a monolayer of amphiphilic surfactant in the solution and flowed through the enclosed liquid cell. Direct evidence of the nanoparticle dynamics shows that the strength of their interactions depends on how they are shaped. For example, cuboidal Au nanoparticles show directional (face-to-face) attachment. This work can be a great step towards developing new materials bottom-up with self-assembly.

Reference: Utkur Mirsaidov et al. Nanoparticle Interactions Guided by Shape‐Dependent Hydrophobic Forces. Advanced Materials (2018). Abstract


Interaction mechanism of NPs with different shapes. Image copyright © 2018 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Technical Specs

Hummingbird Liquid Holder - ElectroChemistry Heating Spectroscopy Options
   1400 Series
Number of Inlets 1 or 2 depending on model, single outlet
Biasing Contacts 4
Tubing Type User-replaceable microfluidic tubing
Delivery System Variable speed liquid delivery system
Tip Type Removable tip
Flow Type Continuous flow or static liquid
EDS Compatible Yes
TEM Compatibility TFS/FEI, JEOL, Hitachi, Zeiss

* Call for Custom Configurations

System Components

  1. Liquid-Flow Holder
  2. Liquid Holder Stand
  3. Liquid Holder Tip Cover
  4. Microfluidics Syringe Pump
  5. High-Vacuum Pump
  6. Seal Checking Station with Integrated Microscope
  7. Accessory Kit and Liquid Cell Starter Batch. More accessories, along with a wide array of specialty chips, are available at our Web Store.
  8. Optional Thin Film Liquid Sample Heater Controller.
  9.  Optional Bio-Logic Potentiostat (not pictured)


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Liquid Holder Selected Publications

Wenhui Wang, Hongwei Yan, Utkarsh Anand, and Utkur Mirsaidov. “Visualizing the Conversion of Metal–Organic Framework Nanoparticles into Hollow Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocages,” JACS (2021) Abstract
See Wee Chee, Thomas Lunkenbein Lunkenbein, Robert Schlög, and Beatriz Roldan Cuenya. “In situ and operando electron microscopy in heterogeneous catalysis – Insights into multi-scale chemical dynamics,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (2021) Abstract
Albert Grau-Carbonell, Sina Sadighikia, Tom A. J. Welling, Relinde J. A. van Dijk-Moes, Ramakrishna Kotni, Maarten Bransen, Alfons van Blaaderen*, and Marijn A. van Huis. “In Situ Study of the Wet Chemical Etching of SiO2 and Nanoparticle@SiO2 Core–Shell Nanospheres,” ACS Applied Nano Materials (2021) Abstract
Aram Yoon, Antonia Herzog, Philipp Grosse, Daan Hein Alsem, See Wee Chee, and Beatriz Roldán Cuenya. “Dynamic Imaging of Nanostructures in an Electrolyte with a Scanning Electron Microscope,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2021) Abstract
David A. Shapiro, Sergey Babin, Richard S. Celestre, Weilun Chao, Raymond P. Conley, Peter Denes, Bjoern Enders, Pablo Enfedaque, Susan James, John M. Joseph, Harinarayan Krishnan, Stefano Marchesini, Krishna Muriki, Kasra Nowrouzi, Sharon R. Oh, Howard Padmore, Tony Warwick, Lee Yang, Valeriy V. Yashchuk, Young-Sang Yu and Jiangtao Zhao. “An ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray microscope for quantitative analysis of chemically heterogeneous nanomaterials,” Science Advances (2020) Abstract
Wenhui Wang, Hongwei Yan, Utkarsh Anand, and Utkur Mirsaidov. “Visualizing the Conversion of Metal–Organic Framework Nanoparticles into Hollow Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocages,” JACS (2020) Abstract
Haifeng Wang, Xiaoqin Zhou, Yunhui Huang, Xin Chen, and Chuanhong Jin. “Interactions of sub-five-nanometer diameter colloidal palladium nanoparticles in solution investigated via liquid cell transmission electron microscopy,” RSC Advances (2020) Abstract
Philipp Grosse, Aram Yoon, Clara Rettenmaier, See Wee Chee, and Beatriz Roldan Cuenya. “Growth Dynamics and Processes Governing the Stability of Electrodeposited Size-Controlled Cubic Cu Catalysts,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2020) Abstract
Sina Sadighikia, Albert Grau‐Carbonell, Tom A.J. Welling, Ramakrishna Kotni, Fabian Hagemans, Arnout Imhof, Marijn A. van Huis, and Alfons van Blaaderen. “Low‐dose liquid cell electron microscopy investigation of the complex etching mechanism of rod‐shaped silica colloids,” nano select (2020) Abstract
Mario Alberto Gomez, Ruonan Jiang, Miao Song, Dongsheng Li, Alan Scott Lea, Xu Ma, Haibo Wang, Xiuling Yin, Shaofeng Wang, and Yongfeng Jia. ” Further insights into the Fe(ii) reduction of 2-line ferrihydrite: a semi in situ and in situ TEM study,” Nanoscale Advances (2020) Abstract
Lili Liu, Duo Song, Biao Jin, Michael A. Sinnwell, Jun Liu, James J. De Yoreo, and Maria L. Sushko. “Role of the Solvent–Surfactant Duality of Ionic Liquids in Directing Two-Dimensional Particle Assembly,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2020) Abstract
Tzu-Hsien Shen, Liam Spillane, Jan Vavra, Thi Ha My Pham, Jiayu Peng, Yang Shao-Horn, and Vasiliki Tileli. “Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ Aided by Intrinsic Co/Fe Spinel-Like Surface,” JACS (2020) Abstract
Muhua Sun, Ying Li, Bo Zhang, Christos Argyropoulos, Peter Sutter, and Eli Sutter. “Plasmonic Effects on the Growth of Ag Nanocrystals in Solution,” Langmuir (2020) Abstract
Mei Sun, Bocheng Yu, Mengyu Hong, Zhiwei Li, Fengjiao Lyu, Xing Li, Zhihong Li, Xianlong Wei, Zheng Zhang, Yue Zhang, and Qing Chen. “Controlling the Facet of ZnO during Wet Chemical Etching Its (000 1⎯⎯ ) O‐Terminated Surface,” Small (2020) Abstract
Pan Liu, Pan Liu, Qing Chen, Yoshikazu Ito, Jiuhui Han, Shufen Chu, Xiaodong Wang, Kolan Madhav Reddy, Shuangxi Song, Akihiko Hirata, and Mingwei Chen. “Dealloying Kinetics of AgAu Nanoparticles by In Situ Liquid-Cell Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Nano Letters (2020) Abstract
Quintin Cheek,  Eli Fahrenkrug,  Sofiya Hlynchuk,  Daan Hein Alsem,  Norman J. Salmon, and Stephen Maldonado. “In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Measurements of Ge Nanowire Synthesis with Liquid Metal Nanodroplets in Water,” ACS Nano (2020) Abstract
Lili Liu, Elias Nakouzi, Maria L. Sushko, Gregory K. Schenter, Christopher J. Mundy, Jaehun Chun, and James J. De Yoreo. “Connecting energetics to dynamics in particle growth by oriented attachment using real-time observations,” Nature Communications (2020) Abstract
Zhaoming Liu, Zhisen Zhang, Zheming Wang, Biao Jin, Dongsheng Li, Jinhui Tao, Ruikang Tang, and James J. De Yoreo. “Shape-preserving amorphous-to-crystalline transformation of CaCO3 revealed by in situ TEM,” PNAS (2020) Abstract
Mi Yoo, Young-Sang Yu, Hyunwoo Ha, Siwon Lee, Jin-Seok Choi, Sunyoung Oh, Eunji Kang, Hyuk Choi, Hyesung An, Kug-Seung Lee, Jeong Young Park, Richard Celestre, Matthew A. Marcus, Kasra Nowrouzi, Doug Taube, David A. Shapiro, WooChul Jung, Chunjoong Kim, and Hyun You Kim. ” A tailored oxide interface creates dense Pt single-atom catalysts with high catalytic activity,” Energy & Environmental Science (2020) Abstract
Zhaoming Liu, Changyu Shao, Biao Jin, Zhisen Zhang, Yueqi Zhao, Xurong Xu, and Ruikang Tang. “Crosslinking ionic oligomers as conformable precursors to calcium carbonate,” Nature (2019) Abstract
Chen Hou, Jiuhui Han, Pan Liu, Chuchu Yang, Gang Huang, Takeshi Fujita, Akihiko Hirata, and Mingwei Chen. “Operando Observations of SEI Film Evolution by Mass‐Sensitive Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Advanced Energy Materials (2019) Abstract
Noah Glachman, Noah Geller, Alexander Shea, V. Antoine Verret, Khim Karki, Julio Rodriquez-Manzo, Norman J. Salmon, Daan Hein Alsem, Deep Jariwala, and Eric Stach. “Development of a Method to Characterize Active Sites in Photocatalysis using operando Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2019) Abstract
Tyler Mefford, Khim Karki, Daan Hein Alsem, David Shapiro, Norman Salmon, and William C. Chueh. “Operando Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Co(OH)2 Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysts,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2019) Abstract
Biao Jin, Yanming Wang, Zhaoming Liu, Arthur France‐Lanord, Jeffrey C. Grossman, Chuanhong Jin, and Ruikang Tang. “Revealing the Cluster‐Cloud and Its Role in Nanocrystallization,” Advanced Materials (2019) Abstract
Shu Fen Tan, See Wee Chee, Zhaslan Baraissov, Hongmei Jin, Teck Leong Tan and Utkur Mirsaidov. “Intermediate Structures of Pt–Ni Nanoparticles during Selective Chemical and Electrochemical Etching,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (2019) Abstract
Shih-Ting Wang, Yiyang Lin, Michael H. Nielsen, Cheng Yu Song, Michael R. Thomas, Christopher D. Spicer, Roland Kröger, Peter Ercius, Shaul Alonic and Molly M. Stevens. “Shape-controlled synthesis and in situ characterisation of anisotropic Au nanomaterials using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy,” Nanoscale (2019) Abstract
See Wee Chee, Utkarsh Anand, Geeta Bisht, Shu Fen Tan, and Utkur Mirsaidov. “Direct Observations of the Rotation and Translation of Anisotropic Nanoparticles Adsorbed at a Liquid–Solid Interface,” Nano Letters (2019) Abstract
Yingying Jiang, Xiao Li, Xiaoming Ma, Haifeng Wang, Hui Zhang, Zheng Liu, Ze Zhang and Chuanhong Jin. “Spherical to truncated octahedral shape transformation of palladium nanocrystals driven by e-beam in aqueous solution,” Nano Research (2019) Abstract
Wan-Gil Jung, Jeung Hun Park, Yong-Ryun Jo and Bong-Joong Kim. “Growth Kinetics of Individual Au Spiky Nanoparticles Using Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy,” The Journal of the American Chemical Society (2019) Abstract
Steven C. Hayden, Claire Chisholm, Rachael O. Grudt, Jeffery A. Aguiar, William M. Mook, Paul G. Kotula, Tatiana S. Pilyugina, Daniel C. Bufford, Khalid Hattar, Timothy J. Kucharski, Ihsan M. Taie, Michele L. Ostraat and Katherine L. Jungjohann. “Localized corrosion of low-carbon steel at the nanoscale,” npj Materials Degradation (2019) Abstract
Alejandra Londono-Calderon, Srikanth Nayak, Curtis L. Mosher, Surya K. Mallapragada, and Tanya Prozorov. “New Approach to Electron Microscopy Imaging of Gel Nanocomposites in situ,” Micron (2019) Abstract
Chang Li, Che Chen Tho, Daria Galaktionova, Xin Chen, Petr Král and Utkur Mirsaidov. ” Dynamics of amphiphilic block copolymers in an aqueous solution: direct imaging of micelle formation and nanoparticle encapsulation,” Nanoscale (2019) Abstract
Xuezeng Tian, Utkarsh Anand, Utkur Mirsaidov and Haimei Zheng. “Spontaneous Reshaping and Splitting of AgCl Nanocrystals under Electron Beam Illumination,” Small (2018) Abstract
Eli Sutter, Bo Zhang, Stephan Sutter and Peter Sutter. “In situ electron microscopy of the self-assembly of single-stranded DNA-functionalized Au nanoparticles in aqueous solution,” Nanoscale (2018) Abstract
Biao Jin, Maria L. Sushko, Zhaoming Liu, Chuanhong Jin, and Ruikang Tang. “In Situ Liquid Cell TEM Reveals Bridge-Induced Contact and Fusion of Au Nanocrystals in Aqueous Solution,” Nano Letters (2018) Abstract
Katherine L. Jungjohann, David R. Wheeler, Ronen Polsky, Susan M. Brozik, James A. Brozik, and Angela R.Rudolph. “Liquid-Cell Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of DNA-Directed Gold Nanoparticle Assemblies,” Micron (2018) Abstract
Shu Fen Tan, Geeta Bisht, Utkarsh Anand, Michel Bosman, Xin Ee Yong, and Utkur Mirsaidov. “In situ Kinetic and Thermodynamic Growth Control of Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanoparticles.” Journal of the American Chemical Society (2018) Abstract
Nikhilendra Singh, Timothy S. Arthur, Oscar Tutusaus, Jing Li, Kim Kisslinger, Huolin L. Xin, Eric A. Stach, Xudong Fan, and Rana Mohtadi. “Achieving High Cycling Rates via In-situ Generation of Active Nanocomposite Metal Anodes.” ACS Applied Energy Materials (2018) Abstract
Mei Sun, Xing Li, Zhiqiang Tang, Xianlong Wei and Qing Chen. “Constant-Rate Dissolution of InAs Nanowires in Radiolytic Water Observed by In situ Liquid Cell TEM.” Nanoscale (2018) Abstract
Peter Sutter, Bo Zhang and Eli Sutter. “Radiation damage during in situ electron microscopy of DNA-mediated nanoparticle assemblies in solution,” Nanoscale (2018) Abstract
Feng Yan, Lili Liu, Tiffany R. Walsh, Yu Gong, Patrick Z. El-Khoury, Yanyan Zhang, Zihua Zhu, James J. De Yoreo, Mark H. Engelhard, Xin Zhang and Chun-Long Chen. “Controlled synthesis of highly-branched plasmonic gold nanoparticles through peptoid engineering,” Nature Communications (2018) Abstract
Claudia Stauch, Christopher Hobbs, Aleksey Shmeliov, Valeria Nicolosi, Thomas Ballweg, Robert Luxenhofer, and Karl Mandel. “Colloidal Core–Satellite Supraparticles via Preprogramed Burst of Nanostructured Micro‐Raspberry Particles,” Particle & Particle Systems Characterization (2018) Abstract
Khim Karki, Tyler Mefford, Daan Hein Alsem, Norman Salmon and William C. Chueh. “Replicating Bulk Electrochemistry in Liquid Cell Microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2018) Abstract
Jeung Hun Park, Tommy Watanabe, Ainsley Pinkowitz, David J. Duquette, Robert Hull, Daniel A. Steingart and Frances M. Ross. “In situ EC-TEM Studies of Metal Thin Film Corrosion in Liquid Solutions at Elevated Temperatures.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2018) Abstract
Alejandra Londono-Calderon, Lee Bendickson, Pierre E. Palo, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Surya Mallapragada and Tanya Prozorov. “In-Situ Nucleation, Growth and Evolution of Au Nanoparticles during Metallization of DNA Origami Visualized with HAADF-STEM.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2018) Abstract
Jared J. Lodico, William A. Hubbard and B. C. Regan. “Scanning TEM Electron Beam Induced Current Imaging in Water.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2018) Abstract
Shu Fen Tan, Sanoj Raj, Geeta Bisht, Harshini V. Annadata, Christian A. Nijhuis, Petr Král, and Utkur Mirsaidov. “Nanoparticle Interactions Guided by Shape‐Dependent Hydrophobic Forces,” Advanced Materials (2018) Abstract
Chen Houa, Jiuhui Hanb, Pan Liua, Chuchu Yangb, Gang Huangb, Takeshi Fujitab, Akihiko Hiratab, and Mingwei Chen. “Operando observations of RuO2 catalyzed Li2O2 formation and decomposition in a Li-O2 micro-battery,” Nano Energy (2018) Abstract
Pan Liu, Jiuhui Han, Xianwei Guo, Yoshikazu Ito, Chuchu Yang, Shoucong Ning, Takeshi Fujita, Akihiko Hirata and Mingwei Chen. “Operando characterization of cathodic reactions in a liquid-state lithium-oxygen micro-battery by scanning transmission electron microscopy,” Scientific Reports (2018) Abstract
Jeung Hun Park, Nicholas M. Schneider, Daniel A. Steingart, Hariklia Deligianni, Suneel Kodambaka, and Frances M. Ross. “Control of Growth Front Evolution by Bi Additives during ZnAu Electrodeposition,” Nano Letters (2018) Abstract
Trevor H. Moser, Hardeep Mehta, Chiwoo Park, Ryan T. Kelly, Tolou Shokuhfar, and James E. Evans. “The role of electron irradiation history in liquid cell transmission electron microscopy,” Science Advances (2018) Abstract
Dongdong Xiao, Zhigang Wu, Miao Song, Jaehun Chun, Gregory K. Schenter, and Dongsheng Li. “Silver Nanocube and Nanobar Growth via Anisotropic Monomer Addition and Particle Attachment Processes,” Langmuir (2017) Abstract
Lili Liu, Shuai zhang, Mark E. Bowden, Jharna Chaudhuri, and James J. De Yoreo. “In-situ TEM and AFM investigation of morphological controls during the growth of single crystal BaWO4,” Crystal Growth & Design (2017) Abstract
Edward R. White, Jared J. Lodico & B. C. Regan. “Intercalation events visualized in single microcrystals of graphite,” Nature Communications (2017) Abstract
YuBo Wang, Shuai Wang, and Xing Lu. “In Situ Observation of the Growth of ZnO Nanostructures Using Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2017) Abstract
Mingyuan Ge, Ming Lu, Yong Chu & Huolin Xin. “Anomalous Growth Rate of Ag Nanocrystals Revealed by in situ STEM,” Scientific Reports (2017) Abstract
Lucas R. Parent, Evangelos Bakalis, Abelardo Ramírez-Hernández, Jacquelin K. Kammeyer, Chiwoo Park, Juan de Pablo, Francesco Zerbetto, Joseph P. Patterson, and Nathan C. Gianneschi.”Directly Observing Micelle Fusion and Growth in Solution by Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Journal of the American Chemical Society (2017) Abstract
See Wee Chee, Shu Fen Tan, Zhaslan Baraissov, Michel Bosman & Utkur Mirsaidov. “Direct observation of the nanoscale Kirkendall effect during galvanic replacement reactions,” Nature Communications (2017) Abstract
Tanya Prozorov, Trevor P. Almeida, András Kovács, and Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski. ” Off-axis electron holography of bacterial cells and magnetic nanoparticles in liquid,” Journal of The Royal Society Interface (2017) Abstract
Michele Conroy, Jennifer A. Soltis, Rick S. Wittman, Frances N. Smith, Sayandev Chatterjee, Xin Zhang, Eugene S. Ilton, and Edgar C. Buck. “Importance of interlayer H bonding structure to the stability of layered minerals,” Scientific Reports (2017) Abstract
Chuchu Yang, Jiuhui Han, Pan Liu, Chen Hou, Gang Huang, Takeshi Fujita, Akihiko Hirata, and Mingwei Chen. “Direct Observations of the Formation and Redox-Mediator-Assisted Decomposition of Li2O2 in a Liquid-Cell Li–O2 Microbattery by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Advanced Materials (2017) Abstract
Timothy S. Arthur, Per-Anders Glans, Nikhilendra Singh, Oscar Tutusaus, Kaiqi Nie, Yi-Sheng Liu, Fuminori Mizuno, Jinghua Guo, Daan Hein Alsem, Norman J. Salmon, and Rana Mohtadi. “Interfacial insight from operando sXAS/TEM for magnesium metal deposition with borohydride electrolytes,” Chemistry of Materials (2017) Abstract
Jeung Hun Park, Daniel A. Steingart, Suneel Kodambaka, and Frances M. Ross. “Electrochemical electron beam lithography: Write, read, and erase metallic nanocrystals on demand,” Science Advances (2017)  Abstract
J. R. Vance  and  S. J. Dillon. “Thermally driven bubble evolution at a heater wire in water characterized by high-speed transmission electron microscopy,”  Chemical Communications (2017) Abstract
Juyeong Kim, Zihao Ou, Matthew R. Jones, Xiaohui Song and Qian Chen. “Imaging the polymerization of multivalent nanoparticles in solution,” Nature Communications (2017) Abstract
Jianbo Wu, Wenpei Gao, Hong Yang, and Jian-Min Zuo. “Dissolution Kinetics of Oxidative Etching of Cubic and Icosahedral Platinum Nanoparticles Revealed by in Situ Liquid Transmission Electron Microscopy,” ACS Nano (2017) Abstract
E. Sutter, P. Sutter, A. V. Tkachenko, R. Krahne, J. De Graff, M. Arciniegas and L. Manna. “In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution,” Nature Communications (2016) Abstract
Arjan P. H. Gelissen, Alex Oppermann, Tobias Caumanns, Pascal Hebbeker, Sarah K. Turnhoff, Rahul Tiwari, Sabine Eisold, Ulrich Simon, Yan Lu, Joachim Mayer, Walter Richtering, Andreas Walther, and Dominik Wöll.”3D Structures of Responsive Nanocompartmentalized Microgels,” Nano Letters (2016) Abstract
J. P.  Patterson, L. R. Parent, J. Cantlona, H. Eickhoffa, G. Bareda, J. E. Evansa and N.C. Gianneschia. “Picoliter Drop-On-Demand Dispensing for Multiplex Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Microscopy and Microanalysis, Online (2016) Abstract
Omid Sadeghi, Clément Falaise, Pedro I. Molina, Ryan Hufschmid, Charles F. Campana, Bruce C. Noll, Nigel D. Browning, and May Nyman. “Chemical Stabilization and Electrochemical Destabilization of the Iron Keggin Ion in Water,” Inorganic Chemistry (2016) Abstract
R. R. Unocic, L. Baggetto, G. M. Veith, J. A. Aguiar, K. A. Unocic, R. L. Sacci, N. J. Dudneyb and K. L. Morea. “Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Chem. Commun. Advance Article (2015) Abstract
E. Firlar, S. Çınar, S. Kashyap, M. Akinc & T. Prozorov. “Direct Visualization of the Hydration Layer on Alumina Nanoparticles with the Fluid Cell STEM in situ,” Scientific Reports (2015) Abstract
 T. J. Woehl and T. Prozorov. “The Mechanisms for Nanoparticle Surface Diffusion and Chain Self-Assembly Determined from Real-Time Nanoscale Kinetics in Liquid,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry  119 (36), 21261-21269  (2015) Abstract
J.H. Park, N.M. Schneider, J.M. Grogan, M.C. Reuter, H.H. Bau, S. Kodambaka & F.M. Ross. “Control of Electron Beam-Induced Au Nanocrystal Growth Kinetics through Solution Chemistry,”  Nano Letters (2015) Abstract
R.R. Unocic. “In-situ Liquid S/TEM: Practical Aspects, Challenges, and Opportunities,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
W. Zhang, D.H. Alsem, F. Wang, N. Salmon. “In-Situ Liquid Cell TEM Studies of Electrochemical Reaction in Lithium-Ion Batteries,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)   Abstract
J.P. Patterson, P. Abellan, M.S. Denny, C. Park, N.D. Browning, S.M. Cohen, J.E. Evans, N.C. Gianneschi. “Observing the Self-assembly of Metal-Organic Frameworks by In-Situ Liquid Cell TEM,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
J.-M. Zuo, A. Yoon, W. Gao, J. Wu, H. Park. “Materials processes observed using dynamical environmental TEM at University of Illinois,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
T.J. Woehal, S. Kashyap, E. Firlar, T. Perez-Gonzalez, D. Faivre, D. Trubitsyn, D. Bazylinski, T. Prozorov. “Correlative Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Liquid: Toward In-Vivo Imaging,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
T.J. Woehl, T. Prozorov. “Visualization of gold nanoparticle self-assembly kinetics,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
N. Bhattarai, T. Prozorov. “In-situ STEM Investigation of Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanocube,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
S.W. Chee, D. Loh, U Mirsaidov, P. Matsudaira, “Probing Nanoparticle Dynamics in 200 nm Thick Liquid Layers at Millisecond Time Resolution.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
J.H. Park, N.M. Schneider, J.M. Grogan, M.C. Reuter, H.H. Bau, S. Kodambaka & F.M. Ross, “Control of Electron Beam-Induced Au Nanocrystal Growth Kinetics
through Solution Chemistry.”  Nano Letters (2015)
C. Wang. “In situ transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy studies of rechargeable batteries under dynamic operating conditions: A retrospective and perspective view.” Journal of Materials Research, 30, (2015) pp 326-339 Abstract
P. J. M. Smeets, K. R. Cho, R. G. E. Kempen, N. A. J. M. Sommerdijk, and J. J. De Yoreo.Calcium carbonate nucleation driven by ion binding in a biomimetic matrix revealed by in situ electron microscopy, Nature Materials Letters, Published Online 01/26/2015. Abstract
E. Sutter, K. Jungjohann, S. Bliznakov, A. Courty, E. Maisonhaute, S. Tenney & P. Sutter. “In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of silver–palladium galvanic replacement reactions on silver nanoparticles.” Nature Communications, 5, Article number: 4946 doi:10.1038/ncomms5946 Abstract
 M.H. Nielsen, S. Aloni, J.J. De Yoreo.  “In situ TEM imaging of CaCO3 nucleation reveals coexistence of direct and indirect pathways”, Science vol. 345 iss. 6201 (2014) pp. 1158-1162 Abstract
P. Abellan, B. L. Mehdi, L.R. Parent, M. Gu, C. Park, W. Xu, Y. Zhang, I. Arslan, J.G. Zhang, C.M. Wang, J.E. Evans, and N.D. Browning ”
Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-Ion Batteries by in Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy” Nano Lett. 14:3 (2014) 1293-1299
S.W. Chee, D.J. Duquette, F.M. Ross, and R. Hull. “Metastable Structures in Al Thin Films Before the Onset of Corrosion Pitting as Observed using Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Micoscopy and Microanalysis 20:2 (2014) pp. 462‒468 Abstract
R.R. Unocic, X.G. Sun, R.L. Sacci, L.A. Adamczyk, D.H. Alsem, S. Dai, N.J. Dudney, and K.L. More. “Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Microscopy and Microanalysis 20:4 (2014) pp.1029‒1037 Abstract
R.L. Sacci, N. Dudney, K. More, L.R. Parent, I. Arslan, N.D. Browning, and R.R. Unocic. “Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by In-Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Chem. Commun. 50 (2014) pp. 2104‒2107 Abstract
J.M. Miller, D.H. Alsem, N. Salmon, N.E. Johnson and J.E. Hutchison. “Functionalized Surfaces to Improve Imaging Conditions in Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy. ” Microscopy and Microanalysis, 20:Suppl. 3 (2014), pp. 1140–1141 Abstract
S. Kashyap, T.J. Woehl, X. Liu, S.K. Mallapragada, T. Prozorov.  ”Nucleation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Mediated by Mms6 Protein In SituACS Nano (2014) In Print. Abstract
M.T. Proetto, A.M. Rush, M.P. Chien, P.A. Baeza, J.P. Patterson, M.P. Thompson, N.H. Olson, C.E. Moore, A.L. Rheingold, C. Andolina, J. Millstone, S.B. Howell, N.D. Browning, J.E. Evans, and N.C. Gianneschi. “Dynamics of Soft Nanomaterials Captured by Transmission Electron Microscopy in Liquid Water,” J.A.C.S. 136:4 (2014) pp. 1162‒1165 Abstract
L.R. Parent, D.B. Robinson, P.J. Cappillino, R.J. Hartnett, P. Abellan, J.E. Evans, N.D Browning, and I. Arslan. “In-Situ Observation of Directed Nanoparticle Aggregation During the Synthesis of Ordered Nanoporous Metal in Soft Templates,” Chemistry of Materials 26:3 (2014) pp. 1426‒1433 Abstract
T.J. Woehl, C. Park, J.E. Evans, I. Arslan, W.D. Ristenpart, N.D. Browning. “Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate,” Nano Lett. 14 (2014) pp. 373‒378 Abstract
T.J. Woehl, S. Kashyap, E. Firlar, T. Perez-Gonzalez, D. Faivre, D. Trubitsyn, D.A. Bazylinski and T. Prozorov. “Correlative Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Liquid: Toward In Vivo Imaging” Scientific Reports 4, 6854 (2014) Abstract
D.A. Fischer, D.H. Alsem, B. Simon, T. Prozorov and N. Salmon. “Development of an Integrated Platform for Cross-Correlative Imaging of Biological Specimens in Liquid using Light and Electron Microscopies.” Microscopy and Microanalysis, 19 (Suppl. 2) , pp 476-477. (2013) Abstract
M. Gu, L.R. Parent, B.L. Mehdi, R.R. Unocic, M.T. McDowell, R.L. Sacci, W. Xu, J.G. Connell, P. Xu, P. Abellan, X. Chen,Y. Zhang, D.E. Perea, J.E. Evans, L.J. Lauhon, J.G. Zhang, J. Liu, N.D. Browning, Y. Cui, I. Arslan, and C.M. Wang. “Demonstration of an Electrochemical Liquid Cell for Operando Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of the Lithiation/Delithiation Behavior of Si Nanowire Battery Anodes.” Nano Lett. 13:12 (2013) pp. 6106‒6112 Abstract
S.W. Chee, F.M. Ross, D. Duquette, and R. Hull. “Studies of Corrosion of Al Thin Films using Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy,” MRS Proceedings 1525 (2013) Abstract
F.A. Plamper, A.P. Gelissen, J. Timper, A. Wolf, A.B. Zezin, W. Richtering, H. Tenhu, U. Simon, J. Mayer, O. V. Borisov, D.V. Pergushov. “Spontaneous Assembly of Miktoarm Stars into Vesicular Interpolyelectrolyte Complexes,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 34 (2013) pp. 855–860 Abstract
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K.L. Jungjohann, S. Bliznakov, P.W. Sutter, E.A. Stach, E.A. Sutter. “In-Situ Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy of the Solution Growth of Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanostructures,” Nano. Lett. 13 (2013) pp. 2964–2970 Abstract
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M.H. Nielsen, J.R.I. Lee, Q. Hu, T. Y.-J. Han, and J.J. De Yoreo, “Structural evolution, formation pathways and energetic controls during template-directed nucleation of CaCO3,” Faraday Discuss. 159 (2012) pp. 105–121 Abstract
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E.R. White, S.B. Singer, V. Augustyn, W.A. Hubbard, M. Mecklenburg, B. Dunn, and B.C. Regan,“In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of Lead Dendrites and Lead Ions in Aqueous Solution” ACS Nano 6:7 (2012) pp. 6038–6317 Abstract
K.L. Jungjohann, J.E. Evans, J.A Aguiar , I. Arslan, N.D. Browning. “Atomic-scale imaging and spectroscopy for in-situ liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis 18:03 (2012) pp. 621–627  Abstract
L.R. Parent, D.B. Robinson, T.J. Woehl, W.D. Ristenpart, J.E. Evans, N.D. Browning, I. Arslan “Direct in-situ observation of nanoparticle synthesis in a liquid crystal surfactant template,” ACS Nano 6:4 (2012) pp. 3589–3596  Abstract
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J.E. Evans, K.L. Jungjohann, N.D. Browning and I. Arslan. “Controlled Growth of Nanoparticles from Solution with In-Situ Liquid Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 11:7 (2011) pp. 2809–2813  Abstract
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