|1400 Series X-Ray|
|Number of Inlets||1 or 2 depending on model, single-outlet|
|Tubing Type||User-replaceable microfluidic tubing|
|Delivery System||Variable-speed liquid delivery system|
|Tip Type||Removable tip|
|Flow Type||Continuous or static-liquid flow|
|Microscope Compatibility||Custom integration*|
Specially designed for X-ray microscopes and X-ray synchrotron beamline end stations, Hummingbird Scientific’s X-ray microscope liquid cell system uses the same removable tip design as our liquid TEM holder, allowing for cross-correlative experiments across x-ray and electron microscope platforms. The two chip liquid cell allows users to quickly and easily prepare and exchange samples while remaining confident in the cell’s seal.
- Imaging biological specimens in liquid environments
- Liquid-electrochemistry experiments
- Intercalation in battery electrodes
Left: Hummingbird Scientific’s liquid-electrochemical x-ray microscope system at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.Read MoreEdit
How It Works
Hummingbird Scientific’s x-ray liquid system encloses the sample within a microfabricated liquid cell located in the holder tip, which is separated from the microscope chamber environment by a patented sealing mechanism. The microfluidic pump, optional heating controller and potentiostat are located outside of the chamber and are connected to the tip via a customizable chamber interface and vacuum-sealed supply system. Hummingbird’s two-chip liquid cell allows users to prepare their samples using the sample methods they would employ for any other electron transparent-membrane substrate.
B. Liquid Cell
C. Order-Sorting Aperture
D. Zone Plate
Our liquid system’s unique removable holder tip allows for correlative imaging of transmission electron, scanning electron, X-ray, and optical microscopy of samples in liquid environments. Dedicated holders are available for each technique. All holders can interface with the same liquid-cell tip for site-specific imaging.
The x-ray liquid holder can be customized for your experimental needs and is compatible with most TEM liquid cell options. Common options include:
- Continuous Flow
- Dual Flow/Mixing
- Static Cell
- Vapor System
Don’t see what you’re looking for? We would also be happy to develop a custom solution for you.Edit
Operando X-ray spectroscopy elucidating battery phase transformation
A team of researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Argonne National Laboratory, aBeam Technologies Inc, and University of Science and Technology of China successfully integrated our X-ray environmental holders (liquid & gas heating) into their ultra-high resolution scanning transmission soft x-ray microscope (STXM) to perform spectroscopy and chemical analysis of heterogeneous nanoparticles.
The holder system was used to perform operando spectromicroscopy of a collection of lithium iron phosphate battery nanoplatelets are heated in the environmental cell and chemical distribution is mapped. The particles show a two-phase chemical transformation when heated at 300ºC including an intermediate state of charge.
Figure on the right: LixFePO4 showing chemical distribution when heated at 300 ºC. Red (FePO4) and green (LiFePO4).
Reference: Shapiro et al. “An ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray microscope for quantitative analysis of chemically heterogeneous nanomaterials.” Science Advances (2020). Full paperEdit
Customization & Service
X-Ray Liquid Electrochemistry Selected Publications
|J. Tyler Mefford, Andrew R. Akbashev, Minkyung Kang, Cameron L. Bentley, William E. Gent, Daan Hein Alsem, Norman Salmon, David A. Shapiro, Patrick R. Unwin, William C. Chueh. “Correlative operando microscopy of oxygen evolution electrocatalysts,” Nature (2021)||Abstract|
|Shapiro, David A., Sergey Babin, Richard S. Celestre, Weilun Chao, Raymond P. Conley, Peter Denes, Bjoern Enders et al. “An ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray microscope for quantitative analysis of chemically heterogeneous nanomaterials.” Science Advances (2020)||Abstract|
|Mi Yoo, Young-Sang Yu, Hyunwoo Ha, Siwon Lee, Jin-Seok Choi, Sunyoung Oh, Eunji Kang, Hyuk Choi, Hyesung An, Kug-Seung Lee, Jeong Young Park, Richard Celestre, Matthew A. Marcus, Kasra Nowrouzi, Doug Taube, David A. Shapiro, WooChul Jung, Chunjoong Kim and Hyun You Kim . “A tailored oxide interface creates dense Pt single-atom catalysts with high catalytic activity,” Energy & Environmental Science (2020)||Abstract|
|Yimin A. Wu, Ian McNulty, Cong Liu, Kah Chun Lau, Qi Liu, Arvydas P. Paulikas, Cheng-Jun Sun, Zhonghou Cai, Jeffrey R. Guest, Yang Ren, Vojislav Stamenkovic, Larry A. Curtiss, Yuzi Liu & Tijana Rajh, “Facet-dependent active sites of a single Cu2O particle photocatalyst for CO2 reduction to methanol” Nature Energy (2019)||Abstract|
|J. Tyler Mefford, Khim Karki, Daan Hein Alsem, David Shapiro, Norman Salmon and William C. Chueh. ” Operando Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Co(OH)2 Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysts,” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2019)||Abstract|
|Khim Karki, Tyler Mefford, Daan Hein Alsem, Norman Salmon, William C Chueh. “Replicating bulk electrochemistry in liquid cell microscopy,” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2018)||Abstract|
|Timothy S. Arthur, Per-Anders Glans, Nikhilendra Singh, Oscar Tutusaus, Kaiqi Nie, Yi-Sheng Liu, Fuminori Mizuno, Jinghua Guo, Daan Hein Alsem, Norman J. Salmon, and Rana Mohtadi. “Interfacial insight from operando sXAS/TEM for magnesium metal deposition with borohydride electrolytes,” Chemistry of Materials (2017)||Abstract|
|J. Lim,Y. Li, D. H. Alsem, H. So, S. C. Lee, P. Bai, D.A. Cogswell, X. Liu, N. Jin, Y. Yu, N. J. Salmon, D. A. Shapiro, M. Z. Bazant, T.Tyliszczak, W. C. Chueh, “Origin and Hysteresis of Lithium Compositional Spatiodynamics Within Battery Primary Particles”, Science (2016)||Abstract|
|A. Kammers, D.H. Alsem, J. Lim, Y. Li, W. Chueh, N. Salmon. “Accelerating Next Generation Battery Development Through the Application of Cross-Correlative In-Situ Microscopy,” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2015)||Abstract|
|B. Stripe, V. Rose, M. Misek, S.W. Chee, D.H. Alsem, N. Salmon. “Applications of In-Situ Synchrotron Radiation Techniques in Nanomaterials Research,” MRS Spring (2014)||Abstract|