|1400 Series X-Ray|
|Number of Inlets||1 or 2 depending on model, single-outlet|
|Tubing Type||User-replaceable microfluidic tubing|
|Delivery System||Variable-speed liquid delivery system|
|Tip Type||Removable tip|
|Flow Type||Continuous or static-liquid flow|
|Microscope Compatibility||Custom integration*|
Specially designed for X-ray microscopes and X-ray synchrotron beamline end stations, Hummingbird Scientific’s X-ray microscope liquid cell system uses the same removable tip design as our liquid TEM holder, allowing for cross-correlative experiments across x-ray and electron microscope platforms. The two chip liquid cell allows users to quickly and easily prepare and exchange samples while remaining confident in the cell’s seal.
- Imaging biological specimens in liquid environments
- Liquid-electrochemistry experiments
- Intercalation in battery electrodes
Left: Hummingbird Scientific’s liquid-electrochemical x-ray microscope system at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.Read MoreEdit
How It Works
Hummingbird Scientific’s x-ray liquid system encloses the sample within a microfabricated liquid cell located in the holder tip, which is separated from the microscope chamber environment by a patented sealing mechanism. The microfluidic pump, optional heating controller and potentiostat are located outside of the chamber and are connected to the tip via a customizable chamber interface and vacuum-sealed supply system. Hummingbird’s two-chip liquid cell allows users to prepare their samples using the sample methods they would employ for any other electron transparent-membrane substrate.
B. Liquid Cell
C. Order-Sorting Aperture
D. Zone Plate
Our liquid system’s unique removable holder tip allows for correlative imaging of transmission electron, scanning electron, X-ray, and optical microscopy of samples in liquid environments. Dedicated holders are available for each technique. All holders can interface with the same liquid-cell tip for site-specific imaging.
The x-ray liquid holder can be customized for your experimental needs and is compatible with most TEM liquid cell options. Common options include:
- Continuous Flow
- Dual Flow/Mixing
- Static Cell
- Vapor System
Don’t see what you’re looking for? We would also be happy to develop a custom solution for you.Edit
Operando liquid-electrochemical microscopy reveals origin of Li charging and discharging of battery primary particles
LixFePO4 battery material particles were charged and discharged in-situ while recording the special charge state using STXM (Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy) at Lawrence Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source. This data showed that spatial heterogeneities in reaction rates account for domains with the charging process significantly less uniform than the discharging process. These results highlight the crucial role of surface reaction rate for lithiation, observing these inconsistencies of ion insertion have implications for electrode engineering and battery management for future generation battery technology.
Figure on the right: LixFePO4 battery material particles are shown here charging (red to green) and discharging (green to red) in-situ in the X-ray liquid-electrochemical cell. The animation shows regions of faster and slower charge.
Reference: “Origin and hysteresis of lithium compositional spatiodynamics within battery primary particles”, J. Lim,Y. Li, D. H. Alsem, H. So, S. C. Lee, P. Bai, D.A. Cogswell, X. Liu, N. Jin, Y. Yu, N. J. Salmon, D. A. Shapiro, M. Z. Bazant, T.Tyliszczak, W. C. Chueh, Science 05 Aug 2016 Abstract
Customization & Service
X-Ray Liquid Electrochemistry Selected Publications
|Timothy S. Arthur, Per-Anders Glans, Nikhilendra Singh, Oscar Tutusaus, Kaiqi Nie, Yi-Sheng Liu, Fuminori Mizuno, Jinghua Guo, Daan Hein Alsem, Norman J. Salmon, and Rana Mohtadi. “Interfacial insight from operando sXAS/TEM for magnesium metal deposition with borohydride electrolytes,” Chemistry of Materials (2017)||Abstract|
|J. Lim,Y. Li, D. H. Alsem, H. So, S. C. Lee, P. Bai, D.A. Cogswell, X. Liu, N. Jin, Y. Yu, N. J. Salmon, D. A. Shapiro, M. Z. Bazant, T.Tyliszczak, W. C. Chueh, “Origin and Hysteresis of Lithium Compositional Spatiodynamics Within Battery Primary Particles”, Science, 05 Aug (2016)||Abstract|
|A. Kammers, D.H. Alsem, J. Lim, Y. Li, W. Chueh, N. Salmon. “Accelerating Next Generation Battery Development Through the Application of Cross-Correlative In-Situ Microscopy,” Microscopy & Microanalysis Meeting (2015)||Abstract|
|B. Stripe, V. Rose, M. Misek, S.W. Chee, D.H. Alsem, N. Salmon. “Applications of In-Situ Synchrotron Radiation Techniques in Nanomaterials Research,” MRS Spring (2014) Symposium AAA||Abstract|