Liquid

The World Leader in Environmental TEM


Hummingbird Scientific’s Liquid flow holder allows scientists to image samples in flowing or static liquids, at atomic resolution. This system is a complete, all-in-one solution, opening up exciting new avenues for materials characterization.

This ground-breaking product was the winner of the Tibbets Award for Small Business Innovation Research in 2010 and the Federal Lab Consortium Award in 2011.  The Microanalysis Society of America awarded the 2011 Birks Award for the first in-situ liquid TEM electrochemical study performed with the patented Hummingbird Scientific Liquid Flow TEM Holder.

Our award-winning liquid ElectroChemistry holder was the first commercial holder to allow liquid electrochemical experiments inside the TEM.

Now also with custom data/image integration options.

 

Featured Research

Self-assembly guided by shape and force

Scientists from the University of Singapore used Hummingbird’s Liquid Cell TEM imaging platform to demonstrate that nanoparticles’ shape influence their self-assembly and growth. These results are published in Advanced Materials. In this study, nanoparticles with different shapes such as rods, bipyramids, spheres, and cubes were capped with a monolayer of amphiphilic surfactant in the solution and flowed through the enclosed liquid cell. Direct evidence of the nanoparticle dynamics shows that the strength of their interactions depends on how they are shaped. For example, cuboidal Au nanoparticles show directional (face-to-face) attachment. This work can be a great step towards developing new materials bottom-up with self-assembly.

Reference: Utkur Mirsaidov et al. Nanoparticle Interactions Guided by Shape‐Dependent Hydrophobic Forces. Advanced Materials (2018). Abstract

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Interaction mechanism of NPs with different shapes. Image copyright © 2018 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Technical Specs

Hummingbird Liquid Holder - ElectroChemistry Heating Spectroscopy Options
   1400 Series
Number of Inlets 1 or 2 depending on model, single outlet
Biasing Contacts 3 or 4 depending on model
Tubing Type Replaceable microfluidic tubing
Delivery System Variable speed liquid delivery system
Tip Type Removable tip
Flow Type Continuous flow or static liquid
EDS Compatible Yes
TEM Compatibility TFS/FEI, JEOL, Hitachi, Zeiss

* Call for Custom Configurations

System Components

  1. Liquid-Flow Holder
  2. Liquid Holder Stand
  3. Liquid Holder Tip Cover
  4. Microfluidics Syringe Pump
  5. High-Vacuum Pump
  6. Seal Checking Station with Integrated Microscope
  7. Accessory Kit and Liquid Cell Starter Batch. More accessories, along with a wide array of specialty chips, are available at our Web Store.
  8. Optional Thin Film Heater Controller Power Supply
  9.  Optional Biologic Potentiostat (not pictured)

 

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Liquid Holder Selected Publications

Claudia Stauch, Christopher Hobbs, Aleksey Shmeliov, Valeria Nicolosi, Thomas Ballweg, Robert Luxenhofer, and Karl Mandel. “Colloidal Core–Satellite Supraparticles via Preprogramed Burst of Nanostructured Micro‐Raspberry Particles,” Particle & Particle Systems Characterization (2018) Abstract
Shu Fen Tan, Sanoj Raj, Geeta Bisht, Harshini V. Annadata, Christian A. Nijhuis, Petr Král, and Utkur Mirsaidov. “Nanoparticle Interactions Guided by Shape‐Dependent Hydrophobic Forces,” Advanced Materials (2018) Abstract
Chen Houa, Jiuhui Hanb, Pan Liua, Chuchu Yangb, Gang Huangb, Takeshi Fujitab, Akihiko Hiratab, and Mingwei Chen. “Operando observations of RuO2 catalyzed Li2O2 formation and decomposition in a Li-O2 micro-battery,” Nano Energy (2018) Abstract
Pan Liu, Jiuhui Han, Xianwei Guo, Yoshikazu Ito, Chuchu Yang, Shoucong Ning, Takeshi Fujita, Akihiko Hirata and Mingwei Chen. “Operando characterization of cathodic reactions in a liquid-state lithium-oxygen micro-battery by scanning transmission electron microscopy,” Scientific Reports (2018) Abstract
Jeung Hun Park, Nicholas M. Schneider, Daniel A. Steingart, Hariklia Deligianni, Suneel Kodambaka, and Frances M. Ross. “Control of Growth Front Evolution by Bi Additives during ZnAu Electrodeposition,” Nano Letters (2018) Abstract
Trevor H. Moser, Hardeep Mehta, Chiwoo Park, Ryan T. Kelly, Tolou Shokuhfar, and James E. Evans. “The role of electron irradiation history in liquid cell transmission electron microscopy,” Science Advances (2018) Abstract
Dongdong Xiao, Zhigang Wu, Miao Song, Jaehun Chun, Gregory K. Schenter, and Dongsheng Li. “Silver Nanocube and Nanobar Growth via Anisotropic Monomer Addition and Particle Attachment Processes,” Langmuir (2017) Abstract
Lili Liu, Shuai zhang, Mark E. Bowden, Jharna Chaudhuri, and James J. De Yoreo. “In-situ TEM and AFM investigation of morphological controls during the growth of single crystal BaWO4,” Crystal Growth & Design (2017) Abstract
Edward R. White, Jared J. Lodico & B. C. Regan. “Intercalation events visualized in single microcrystals of graphite,” Nature Communications (2017) Abstract
YuBo Wang, Shuai Wang, and Xing Lu. “In Situ Observation of the Growth of ZnO Nanostructures Using Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2017) Abstract
Mingyuan Ge, Ming Lu, Yong Chu & Huolin Xin. “Anomalous Growth Rate of Ag Nanocrystals Revealed by in situ STEM,” Scientific Reports (2017) Abstract
Lucas R. Parent, Evangelos Bakalis, Abelardo Ramírez-Hernández, Jacquelin K. Kammeyer, Chiwoo Park, Juan de Pablo, Francesco Zerbetto, Joseph P. Patterson, and Nathan C. Gianneschi.”Directly Observing Micelle Fusion and Growth in Solution by Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Journal of the American Chemical Society (2017) Abstract
See Wee Chee, Shu Fen Tan, Zhaslan Baraissov, Michel Bosman & Utkur Mirsaidov. “Direct observation of the nanoscale Kirkendall effect during galvanic replacement reactions,” Nature Communications (2017) Abstract
Tanya Prozorov, Trevor P. Almeida, András Kovács, and Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski. ” Off-axis electron holography of bacterial cells and magnetic nanoparticles in liquid,” Journal of The Royal Society Interface (2017) Abstract
Michele Conroy, Jennifer A. Soltis, Rick S. Wittman, Frances N. Smith, Sayandev Chatterjee, Xin Zhang, Eugene S. Ilton, and Edgar C. Buck. “Importance of interlayer H bonding structure to the stability of layered minerals,” Scientific Reports (2017) Abstract
Chuchu Yang, Jiuhui Han, Pan Liu, Chen Hou, Gang Huang, Takeshi Fujita, Akihiko Hirata, and Mingwei Chen. “Direct Observations of the Formation and Redox-Mediator-Assisted Decomposition of Li2O2 in a Liquid-Cell Li–O2 Microbattery by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Advanced Materials (2017) Abstract
Timothy S. Arthur, Per-Anders Glans, Nikhilendra Singh, Oscar Tutusaus, Kaiqi Nie, Yi-Sheng Liu, Fuminori Mizuno, Jinghua Guo, Daan Hein Alsem, Norman J. Salmon, and Rana Mohtadi. “Interfacial insight from operando sXAS/TEM for magnesium metal deposition with borohydride electrolytes,” Chemistry of Materials (2017) Abstract
Jeung Hun Park, Daniel A. Steingart, Suneel Kodambaka, and Frances M. Ross. “Electrochemical electron beam lithography: Write, read, and erase metallic nanocrystals on demand,” Science Advances (2017)  Abstract
J. R. Vance  and  S. J. Dillon. “Thermally driven bubble evolution at a heater wire in water characterized by high-speed transmission electron microscopy,”  Chemical Communications (2017) Abstract
Juyeong Kim, Zihao Ou, Matthew R. Jones, Xiaohui Song and Qian Chen. “Imaging the polymerization of multivalent nanoparticles in solution,” Nature Communications (2017) Abstract
Jianbo Wu, Wenpei Gao, Hong Yang, and Jian-Min Zuo. “Dissolution Kinetics of Oxidative Etching of Cubic and Icosahedral Platinum Nanoparticles Revealed by in Situ Liquid Transmission Electron Microscopy,” ACS Nano (2017) Abstract
E. Sutter, P. Sutter, A. V. Tkachenko, R. Krahne, J. De Graff, M. Arciniegas and L. Manna. “In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution,” Nature Communications (2016) Abstract
Arjan P. H. Gelissen, Alex Oppermann, Tobias Caumanns, Pascal Hebbeker, Sarah K. Turnhoff, Rahul Tiwari, Sabine Eisold, Ulrich Simon, Yan Lu, Joachim Mayer, Walter Richtering, Andreas Walther, and Dominik Wöll.”3D Structures of Responsive Nanocompartmentalized Microgels,” Nano Letters (2016) Abstract
J. P.  Patterson, L. R. Parent, J. Cantlona, H. Eickhoffa, G. Bareda, J. E. Evansa and N.C. Gianneschia. “Picoliter Drop-On-Demand Dispensing for Multiplex Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Microscopy and Microanalysis, Online (2016) Abstract
Omid Sadeghi, Clément Falaise, Pedro I. Molina, Ryan Hufschmid, Charles F. Campana, Bruce C. Noll, Nigel D. Browning, and May Nyman. “Chemical Stabilization and Electrochemical Destabilization of the Iron Keggin Ion in Water,” Inorganic Chemistry (2016) Abstract
R. R. Unocic, L. Baggetto, G. M. Veith, J. A. Aguiar, K. A. Unocic, R. L. Sacci, N. J. Dudneyb and K. L. Morea. “Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Chem. Commun. Advance Article (2015) Abstract
E. Firlar, S. Çınar, S. Kashyap, M. Akinc & T. Prozorov. “Direct Visualization of the Hydration Layer on Alumina Nanoparticles with the Fluid Cell STEM in situ,” Scientific Reports (2015) Abstract
 T. J. Woehl and T. Prozorov. “The Mechanisms for Nanoparticle Surface Diffusion and Chain Self-Assembly Determined from Real-Time Nanoscale Kinetics in Liquid,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry  119 (36), 21261-21269  (2015) Abstract
J.H. Park, N.M. Schneider, J.M. Grogan, M.C. Reuter, H.H. Bau, S. Kodambaka & F.M. Ross. “Control of Electron Beam-Induced Au Nanocrystal Growth Kinetics through Solution Chemistry,”  Nano Letters (2015) Abstract
R.R. Unocic. “In-situ Liquid S/TEM: Practical Aspects, Challenges, and Opportunities,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
W. Zhang, D.H. Alsem, F. Wang, N. Salmon. “In-Situ Liquid Cell TEM Studies of Electrochemical Reaction in Lithium-Ion Batteries,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)   Abstract
J.P. Patterson, P. Abellan, M.S. Denny, C. Park, N.D. Browning, S.M. Cohen, J.E. Evans, N.C. Gianneschi. “Observing the Self-assembly of Metal-Organic Frameworks by In-Situ Liquid Cell TEM,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
J.-M. Zuo, A. Yoon, W. Gao, J. Wu, H. Park. “Materials processes observed using dynamical environmental TEM at University of Illinois,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
T.J. Woehal, S. Kashyap, E. Firlar, T. Perez-Gonzalez, D. Faivre, D. Trubitsyn, D. Bazylinski, T. Prozorov. “Correlative Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Liquid: Toward In-Vivo Imaging,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
T.J. Woehl, T. Prozorov. “Visualization of gold nanoparticle self-assembly kinetics,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
N. Bhattarai, T. Prozorov. “In-situ STEM Investigation of Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanocube,” Microscopy and Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
S.W. Chee, D. Loh, U Mirsaidov, P. Matsudaira, “Probing Nanoparticle Dynamics in 200 nm Thick Liquid Layers at Millisecond Time Resolution.” Microscopy & Microanalysis (2015)  Abstract
J.H. Park, N.M. Schneider, J.M. Grogan, M.C. Reuter, H.H. Bau, S. Kodambaka & F.M. Ross, “Control of Electron Beam-Induced Au Nanocrystal Growth Kinetics
through Solution Chemistry.”  Nano Letters (2015)
Abstract
C. Wang. “In situ transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy studies of rechargeable batteries under dynamic operating conditions: A retrospective and perspective view.” Journal of Materials Research, 30, (2015) pp 326-339 Abstract
P. J. M. Smeets, K. R. Cho, R. G. E. Kempen, N. A. J. M. Sommerdijk, and J. J. De Yoreo.Calcium carbonate nucleation driven by ion binding in a biomimetic matrix revealed by in situ electron microscopy, Nature Materials Letters, Published Online 01/26/2015. Abstract
E. Sutter, K. Jungjohann, S. Bliznakov, A. Courty, E. Maisonhaute, S. Tenney & P. Sutter. “In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of silver–palladium galvanic replacement reactions on silver nanoparticles.” Nature Communications, 5, Article number: 4946 doi:10.1038/ncomms5946 Abstract
 M.H. Nielsen, S. Aloni, J.J. De Yoreo.  “In situ TEM imaging of CaCO3 nucleation reveals coexistence of direct and indirect pathways”, Science vol. 345 iss. 6201 (2014) pp. 1158-1162 Abstract
P. Abellan, B. L. Mehdi, L.R. Parent, M. Gu, C. Park, W. Xu, Y. Zhang, I. Arslan, J.G. Zhang, C.M. Wang, J.E. Evans, and N.D. Browning ”
Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-Ion Batteries by in Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy” Nano Lett. 14:3 (2014) 1293-1299
Abstract
S.W. Chee, D.J. Duquette, F.M. Ross, and R. Hull. “Metastable Structures in Al Thin Films Before the Onset of Corrosion Pitting as Observed using Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Micoscopy and Microanalysis 20:2 (2014) pp. 462‒468 Abstract
R.R. Unocic, X.G. Sun, R.L. Sacci, L.A. Adamczyk, D.H. Alsem, S. Dai, N.J. Dudney, and K.L. More. “Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Microscopy and Microanalysis 20:4 (2014) pp.1029‒1037 Abstract
R.L. Sacci, N. Dudney, K. More, L.R. Parent, I. Arslan, N.D. Browning, and R.R. Unocic. “Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by In-Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Chem. Commun. 50 (2014) pp. 2104‒2107 Abstract
J.M. Miller, D.H. Alsem, N. Salmon, N.E. Johnson and J.E. Hutchison. “Functionalized Surfaces to Improve Imaging Conditions in Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy. ” Microscopy and Microanalysis, 20:Suppl. 3 (2014), pp. 1140–1141 Abstract
S. Kashyap, T.J. Woehl, X. Liu, S.K. Mallapragada, T. Prozorov.  ”Nucleation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Mediated by Mms6 Protein In SituACS Nano (2014) In Print. Abstract
M.T. Proetto, A.M. Rush, M.P. Chien, P.A. Baeza, J.P. Patterson, M.P. Thompson, N.H. Olson, C.E. Moore, A.L. Rheingold, C. Andolina, J. Millstone, S.B. Howell, N.D. Browning, J.E. Evans, and N.C. Gianneschi. “Dynamics of Soft Nanomaterials Captured by Transmission Electron Microscopy in Liquid Water,” J.A.C.S. 136:4 (2014) pp. 1162‒1165 Abstract
L.R. Parent, D.B. Robinson, P.J. Cappillino, R.J. Hartnett, P. Abellan, J.E. Evans, N.D Browning, and I. Arslan. “In-Situ Observation of Directed Nanoparticle Aggregation During the Synthesis of Ordered Nanoporous Metal in Soft Templates,” Chemistry of Materials 26:3 (2014) pp. 1426‒1433 Abstract
T.J. Woehl, C. Park, J.E. Evans, I. Arslan, W.D. Ristenpart, N.D. Browning. “Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate,” Nano Lett. 14 (2014) pp. 373‒378 Abstract
T.J. Woehl, S. Kashyap, E. Firlar, T. Perez-Gonzalez, D. Faivre, D. Trubitsyn, D.A. Bazylinski and T. Prozorov. “Correlative Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Liquid: Toward In Vivo Imaging” Scientific Reports 4, 6854 (2014) Abstract
D.A. Fischer, D.H. Alsem, B. Simon, T. Prozorov and N. Salmon. “Development of an Integrated Platform for Cross-Correlative Imaging of Biological Specimens in Liquid using Light and Electron Microscopies.” Microscopy and Microanalysis, 19 (Suppl. 2) , pp 476-477. (2013) Abstract
M. Gu, L.R. Parent, B.L. Mehdi, R.R. Unocic, M.T. McDowell, R.L. Sacci, W. Xu, J.G. Connell, P. Xu, P. Abellan, X. Chen,Y. Zhang, D.E. Perea, J.E. Evans, L.J. Lauhon, J.G. Zhang, J. Liu, N.D. Browning, Y. Cui, I. Arslan, and C.M. Wang. “Demonstration of an Electrochemical Liquid Cell for Operando Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of the Lithiation/Delithiation Behavior of Si Nanowire Battery Anodes.” Nano Lett. 13:12 (2013) pp. 6106‒6112 Abstract
S.W. Chee, F.M. Ross, D. Duquette, and R. Hull. “Studies of Corrosion of Al Thin Films using Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy,” MRS Proceedings 1525 (2013) Abstract
F.A. Plamper, A.P. Gelissen, J. Timper, A. Wolf, A.B. Zezin, W. Richtering, H. Tenhu, U. Simon, J. Mayer, O. V. Borisov, D.V. Pergushov. “Spontaneous Assembly of Miktoarm Stars into Vesicular Interpolyelectrolyte Complexes,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 34 (2013) pp. 855–860 Abstract
Zhu, Y. Jiang, W. Huang, H. Zhang, F. Lin, C. Jin. “Atomic Resolution Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of the Dynamics of Nanoparticles in Ultrathin Liquids,”Chem. Commun. 49 (2013) pp. 10944‒10946 Abstract
K.L. Jungjohann, S. Bliznakov, P.W. Sutter, E.A. Stach, E.A. Sutter. “In-Situ Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy of the Solution Growth of Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanostructures,” Nano. Lett. 13 (2013) pp. 2964–2970 Abstract
Y.Z. Liu, X.M. Lin, Y.G. Sun, T. Rajh. “In-Situ Visualization of Self-Assembly of Charged Gold Nanoparticles.” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135:10 (2013) pp. 3764–3767 Abstract
G. Zhu, Y. Jiang, W. Huang, H. Zhang, F. Lin, and C. Jin. “Atomic Resolution Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of the Dynamics of Nanoparticles in Ultrathin Liquids,” Chem. Commun. 49 (2013) pp. 10944‒10946 Abstract
M.H. Nielsen, J.R.I. Lee, Q. Hu, T. Y.-J. Han, and J.J. De Yoreo, “Structural evolution, formation pathways and energetic controls during template-directed nucleation of CaCO3,” Faraday Discuss. 159 (2012) pp. 105–121 Abstract
D. Li, M.H. Nielsen, J.R.I. Lee, C. Frandsen, J.F. Banfield, and J.J. De Yoreo. “Direction-Specific Interactions Control Crystal Growth by Oriented Attachment,” Science 336:6084 (2012) pp. 1014–1018 Abstract
E.R. White, M. Mecklenburg, B. Shevitski, S.B. Singer, and B.C. Regan, “Charged nanoparticle dynamics in water induced by scanning transmission electron microscopy,” Langmuir 28:8 (2012) pp. 3695–3698 Abstract
E.R. White, S.B. Singer, V. Augustyn, W.A. Hubbard, M. Mecklenburg, B. Dunn, and B.C. Regan,“In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of Lead Dendrites and Lead Ions in Aqueous Solution” ACS Nano 6:7 (2012) pp. 6038–6317 Abstract
K.L. Jungjohann, J.E. Evans, J.A Aguiar , I. Arslan, N.D. Browning. “Atomic-scale imaging and spectroscopy for in-situ liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis 18:03 (2012) pp. 621–627  Abstract
L.R. Parent, D.B. Robinson, T.J. Woehl, W.D. Ristenpart, J.E. Evans, N.D. Browning, I. Arslan “Direct in-situ observation of nanoparticle synthesis in a liquid crystal surfactant template,” ACS Nano 6:4 (2012) pp. 3589–3596  Abstract
T.J. Woehl , J. E. Evans, I. Arslan, W.D. Ristenpart , N.D. Browning “Direct in-situ determination of the mechanisms controlling nanoparticle nucleation and growth,” ACS Nano 6:10 (2012) pp. 8599–8610  Abstract
J.E. Evans, K.L. Jungjohann, P.C.K. Wong, P.L. Chiua, G.H. Dutrowa, I. Arslan, N.D. Browning. “Visualizing macromolecular complexes with in-situ liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy” Micron 43:11 (2012) pp. 1085–1090  Abstract
R.R. Unocic, L. Baggetto, K.A. Unocic, G.M. Veith, N.J. Dudney, and K.L. More. “Coupling EELS/EFTEM Imaging with Environmental Fluid Cell Microscopy.” Microscopy and Microanalysis 18 (Suppl 2), (2012) 1104-1105 Abstract
K.L. Jungjohann, J.E. Evans, J.A Aguiar , I. Arslan, N.D. Browning. “Atomic-scale imaging and spectroscopy for in-situ liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis 18:03 (2012) pp. 621–627. Abstract
K.L. Jungjohann, J.E. Evans, I. Arslan, N.D. Browning. “Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy for Aqueous in-Situ Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanaysis 17:S2 (2011) pp. 778–779. Abstract
J.E. Evans, K.L. Jungjohann, N.D. Browning and I. Arslan. “Controlled Growth of Nanoparticles from Solution with In-Situ Liquid Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 11:7 (2011) pp. 2809–2813  Abstract
N. de Jonge, D.B. Peckys, G.J. Kremers, D.W. Piston. “Electron microscopy of whole cells in liquid with nanometer resolution,” PNAS 106:7 (2009) pp. 2159–2164  Abstract
J.E. Evans, N.D. Browning, “Enabling Direct Nanoscale Observations of Biological Reactions with Dynamic TEM,” Microscopy 62:1 (2013) pp. 147–156  Abstract
E.R. White, M. Mecklenburg, B. Shevitski, S.B. Singer, and B.C. Regan, “Charged nanoparticle dynamics in water induced by scanning transmission electron microscopy,” Langmuir 28:8 (2012) pp. 3695–3698  Abstract
R.R. Unocic, L.A. Adamczyk, N.J. Dudney, D.H. Alsem, N.J. Salmon, and K.L. More. “In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials,” ECS Fall Meeting 2010 Abstract
C.M. Wang, W. Xu, J. Liu, D.W. Choi, B. Arey, L.V. Saraf, J.G. Zhang, Z.G. Yang, S. Thevuthasan, D.R. Baer, and N. Salmon. “In-situ transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy studies of interfaces in Li ion batteries: Challenges and opportunities,” J. Mater. Res. 25:8 (2010) pp. 1541–1547 Abstract

 

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