Liquid System Continuous Flow

Liquid Continuous Flow

Our liquid specimen holder’s unique liquid-cell assembly and safety features protect your microscope from contamination and damage. Interchangeable tips and user-replaceable tubing allow researchers to perform controlled and cross-contamination-free experiments and to easily upgrade the system to incorporate new capabilities.

Once the sample is prepared, the system seals it within a microfluidic liquid cell in the holder tip, which is separated from the vacuum of the TEM via a patented sealing mechanism.  The sample is then exposed to a continuous flow of liquid running through the environmental cell. Our two-chip fluid cell guarantees that once they are placed, samples remain within the viewing area.

We invite you to browse our full array of available configurations, each designed with an eye to experimental flexibility.

Featured Research

Biomedical & Biological Imaging

Continuous Flow TEM Liquid Holder Protein Images - Hummingbird Scientific
Images copyright © 2012, Elsevier.

Researchers at UC Davis and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory used a continuous-flow in-situ liquid stage developed by Hummingbird Scientific to image individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in a fully hydrated environment without freezing or chemical fixation.

The researchers were able to capture images of both static (b, white arrow) and moving (b, white arrowhead) ferritin proteins with a spatial resolution better than 2nm. Based on the images, researchers were able to distinguish between the inner, iron-oxide core (~7.5nm diameter), and less-dense outer protein layer (c). Researchers also imaged nanolipoprotein discs (NLP’s) for the first time in a fully-hydrated and non-frozen state. These images indicate that NLP stacking (d, arrowhead) occurs in a buffered solution and is not solely an artifact of sample preparation processes, as previously thought. The researcher’s experiments demonstrate that individual proteins and macromolecules can be imaged at high resolution using in-situ liquid TEM.  They represent a vital first step towards developing new methods for imaging complex molecular interactions in real-time at nanometer-scales. Scale bars represent 20nm (a, b and d) and 10nm (c).

Reference: J.E. Evans, K.L. Jungjohannb, P.C.K. Wonga, P.-L. Chiua, G.H. Dutrowa, I. Arslanb, N.D. Browning , “Visualizing macromolecular complexes with in-situ liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy.” Micron 43:11 (2012) pp. 1085–1090. Abstract

Copyright © 2012, Elsevier.

Continuous Flow Selected Publications

J. P. Patterson, L. R. Parent, J. Cantlona, H. Eickhoffa, G. Bareda, J. E. Evansa and N.C. Gianneschia. “Picoliter Drop-On-Demand Dispensing for Multiplex Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Microscopy and Microanalysis, Online (2016) Abstract
E. Firlar, S. Çınar, S. Kashyap, M. Akinc & T. Prozorov. “Direct Visualization of the Hydration Layer on Alumina Nanoparticles with the Fluid Cell STEM in situ,” Scientific Reports (2015) Abstract
T. J. Woehl and T. Prozorov. “The Mechanisms for Nanoparticle Surface Diffusion and Chain Self-Assembly Determined from Real-Time Nanoscale Kinetics in Liquid,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry  119 (36), 21261-21269  (2015) Abstract
J.P. Patterson, P. Abellan, M.S. Denny, C. Park, N.D. Browning, S.M. Cohen, J.E. Evans, N.C. Gianneschi. “Observing the Self-assembly of Metal-Organic Frameworks by In-Situ Liquid Cell TEM,” Microscopy and Microanalysis Meeting (2015)
J.-M. Zuo, A. Yoon, W. Gao, J. Wu, H. Park. “Materials processes observed using dynamical environmental TEM at University of Illinois,” Microscopy and Microanalysis Meeting (2015)
T.J. Woehal, S. Kashyap, E. Firlar, T. Perez-Gonzalez, D. Faivre, D. Trubitsyn, D. Bazylinski, T. Prozorov. “Correlative Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Liquid: Toward In-Vivo Imaging,” Microscopy and Microanalysis Meeting (2015)
T.J. Woehl, T. Prozorov. “Visualization of gold nanoparticle self-assembly kinetics,” Microscopy and Microanalysis Meeting (2015)
N. Bhattarai, T. Prozorov. “In-situ STEM Investigation of Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanocube,” Microscopy and Microanalysis Meeting (2015)
S.W. Chee, D. Loh, U Mirsaidov, P. Matsudaira, “Probing Nanoparticle Dynamics in 200 nm Thick Liquid Layers at Millisecond Time Resolution.” Microscopy & Microanalysis Meeting (2015)
E. Sutter, K. Jungjohann, S. Bliznakov, A. Courty, E. Maisonhaute, S. Tenney & P. Sutter. “In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of silver–palladium galvanic replacement reactions on silver nanoparticles.” Nature Communications, 5, Article number: 4946 doi:10.1038/ncomms5946 Abstract
J.M. Miller, D.H. Alsem, N. Salmon, N.E. Johnson and J.E. Hutchison. “Functionalized Surfaces to Improve Imaging Conditions in Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy. ” Microscopy and Microanalysis, 20:Suppl. 3 (2014), pp. 1140–1141 Abstract
S. Kashyap, T.J. Woehl, X. Liu, S.K. Mallapragada, T. Prozorov.  ”Nucleation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Mediated by Mms6 Protein In SituACS Nano (2014) In Print. Abstract
M.T. Proetto, A.M. Rush, M.P. Chien, P.A. Baeza, J.P. Patterson, M.P. Thompson, N.H. Olson, C.E. Moore, A.L. Rheingold, C. Andolina, J. Millstone, S.B. Howell, N.D. Browning, J.E. Evans, and N.C. Gianneschi. “Dynamics of Soft Nanomaterials Captured by Transmission Electron Microscopy in Liquid Water,” J.A.C.S. 136:4 (2014) pp. 1162‒1165 Abstract
L.R. Parent, D.B. Robinson, P.J. Cappillino, R.J. Hartnett, P. Abellan, J.E. Evans, N.D Browning, and I. Arslan. “In-Situ Observation of Directed Nanoparticle Aggregation During the Synthesis of Ordered Nanoporous Metal in Soft Templates,” Chemistry of Materials 26:3 (2014) pp. 1426‒1433 Abstract
T.J. Woehl, C. Park, J.E. Evans, I. Arslan, W.D. Ristenpart, N.D. Browning. “Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate,” Nano Lett. 14 (2014) pp. 373‒378 Abstract
F.A. Plamper, A.P. Gelissen, J. Timper, A. Wolf, A.B. Zezin, W. Richtering, H. Tenhu, U. Simon, J. Mayer, O. V. Borisov, D.V. Pergushov. “Spontaneous Assembly of Miktoarm Stars into Vesicular Interpolyelectrolyte Complexes,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 34 (2013) pp. 855–860 Abstract
Zhu, Y. Jiang, W. Huang, H. Zhang, F. Lin, C. Jin. “Atomic Resolution Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of the Dynamics of Nanoparticles in Ultrathin Liquids,”Chem. Commun. 49 (2013) pp. 10944‒10946 Abstract
K.L. Jungjohann, S. Bliznakov, P.W. Sutter, E.A. Stach, E.A. Sutter. “In-Situ Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy of the Solution Growth of Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanostructures,” Nano. Lett. 13 (2013) pp. 2964–2970 Abstract
Y.Z. Liu, X.M. Lin, Y.G. Sun, T. Rajh. “In-Situ Visualization of Self-Assembly of Charged Gold Nanoparticles.” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135:10 (2013) pp. 3764–3767 Abstract
K.L. Jungjohann, J.E. Evans, J.A Aguiar , I. Arslan, N.D. Browning. “Atomic-scale imaging and spectroscopy for in-situ liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy.” Microscopy & Microanalysis 18:03 (2012) pp. 621–627  Abstract
L.R. Parent, D.B. Robinson, T.J. Woehl, W.D. Ristenpart, J.E. Evans, N.D. Browning, I. Arslan “Direct in-situ observation of nanoparticle synthesis in a liquid crystal surfactant template,” ACS Nano 6:4 (2012) pp. 3589–3596  Abstract
T.J. Woehl , J. E. Evans, I. Arslan, W.D. Ristenpart , N.D. Browning “Direct in-situ determination of the mechanisms controlling nanoparticle nucleation and growth,” ACS Nano 6:10 (2012) pp. 8599–8610  Abstract
J.E. Evans, K.L. Jungjohann, P.C.K. Wong, P.L. Chiua, G.H. Dutrowa, I. Arslan, N.D. Browning. “Visualizing macromolecular complexes with in-situ liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy” Micron 43:11 (2012) pp. 1085–1090  Abstract
J.E. Evans, K.L. Jungjohann, N.D. Browning and I. Arslan. “Controlled Growth of Nanoparticles from Solution with In-Situ Liquid Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 11:7 (2011) pp. 2809–2813  Abstract
N. de Jonge, D.B. Peckys, G.J. Kremers, D.W. Piston. “Electron microscopy of whole cells in liquid with nanometer resolution,” PNAS 106:7 (2009) pp. 2159–2164  Abstract
J.E. Evans, N.D. Browning, “Enabling Direct Nanoscale Observations of Biological Reactions with Dynamic TEM,” Microscopy 62:1 (2013) pp. 147–156  Abstract
E.R. White, M. Mecklenburg, B. Shevitski, S.B. Singer, and B.C. Regan, “Charged nanoparticle dynamics in water induced by scanning transmission electron microscopy,” Langmuir 28:8 (2012) pp. 3695–3698  Abstract


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